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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

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What's So Essential about Essential Questions?   

2016-11-11 09:37:56|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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What's So Essential about Essential Questions?--基本问题的重要性 原创 2016-11-01 D. DeWeerd宁夏立爱教育咨询有限公司 (中文译文在后面) How does a teacher bridge benchmarks to class instruction? A recent post noted that benchmarks show teachers what their students need to know and be able to do and measure how far learners have progressed. It is one thing to possess an impressive list of benchmarks, however, and another to successfully apply them to one’s teaching context. One means for putting benchmarks to work is essential questions! What is an essential question? What does the word essential bring to mind? Promoting curiosity about key curricular content, essential questions are course and unit objectives written in question form. They are the “mental Velcro” upon which students attach their learning. Essential questions are answered by unit content (i.e., lessons, activities, assignments, assessments). Regarding course essential questions, when I was teaching fourth grade in the U.S., our science curriculum centered on essential questions like these throughout the school year: 1) What is science? 2) How do we “do science”? 3) What do we learn about the world from studying science? As for unit essential questions, our rocks and minerals unit posed questions like these: 1) What makes a rock a rock? 2) How does a rock cycle? 3) How can a person have a heart of stone? 4) How are people in my life like a rock? What is a quality essential question? Excellent essential questions . . . address a school’s mission, philosophical statements, and benchmarks. are student friendly, creatively written, and thought provoking. are presented in a logical sequence. reflect conceptual priorities. are embedded throughout the curriculum. push the students to think critically. are realistic given the allotted time and grade. are distinct. can be answered by the students. have more than one answer. link curricular content, student skills, and assessments. How does a teacher write and present a set of essential questions? First, review your school’s mission and philosophy and study a particular course’s benchmarks so that you know what your students need to know and be able to do. Second, in light of that foundational information and those standards, brainstorm relevant essential questions for you and your students to answer as you proceed through a particular unit. Peruse textbooks and ancillary curriculum resources. Essential question writing can be done by individual teachers or by a grade-level team to promote collaboration and cohesion within a school’s educational program. Aim for several umbrella essential questions for a course, followed by 2-5 questions for each specific unit of study, with at least one question that takes the students into the moral dimension. Third, plan the final assessment your students will take upon unit completion. This assessment should challenge students to answer the unit’s essential questions and apply unit skills. Next, write lessons that will create space for the class to answer the essential questions. Finally, publish the essential questions. Include them on your school’s curriculum maps if your institution has gone through this process. Note them in student or parent WeChat groups or on your syllabus or classroom’s website so that students and/or families can wrestle with the questions in the car and over meals. Post them in the classroom for easy and frequent reference by you and your students and to share with visitors. Why should you incorporate essential questions? We have noted that essential questions can bridge a school’s foundational documents and a grade level’s benchmarks to the curriculum. Do you ever wonder how you and your students are going to cover all of the curriculum available to you? Essential questions focus a unit of study: they help you get rid of non-essential material because you can ignore anything that does not help answer the questions. Do you often feel that you are working harder than your students? Essential questions are a meaningful way for teachers to give more ownership of the learning process to students. Why not give your students opportunities to identify and answer some essential questions on their own? They can work by themselves, with a partner, or in a small group and determine how to share their learning with the class. Most importantly, essential questions allow you to take students into the moral dimension. Teaching from this standpoint does not automatically happen; it demands intentional, thoughtful integration of moral concepts through every curricular area. Essential questions are a meaningful means for pointing to morality in the curriculum and a must for getting the most out of benchmarks! Resources 1. http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/109004/chapters/What-Makes-a-Question-Essential%C2%A2.aspx 2. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/essential-questions Follow up Questions & Activities 1. What challenges—if any—do you foresee with implementing essential questions? 2. Besides essential questions, what are other ways to link benchmarks to classroom instruction? 3. Design some essential questions for your course and/or the next unit in your textbook. Then, share your questions with us. (以下为中文译文) 作为老师,如何将基准与课堂教学联系到一起? 在几周前微信发布的一篇文章中,我们讨论了基准的重要性,即:帮助老师了解学生需要学习什么和能够做什么;以及衡量学生的进步程度。规定一定的基准很重要,然而,将这些基准成功地运用到教学中,更为重要。 那么,如何将基准与学习联系起来呢?其中一个方法就是——基本问题。 什么是基本问题? 首先请思考一下:什么是“基本”?然后再来思考:什么是基本问题?基本问题是指:为激发学生对课程核心内容的好奇心,通过提问的形式来设定课程和单元目标。基本问题就像“精神纽扣”一样,将学生与学习紧紧地扣在一起。学生通过了解单元内容(如:课堂内容,活动,作业,评估等)来回答和支持基本问题。 有关课程基本问题,以下举例进行说明。我在美国教四年级学生的科学课时,整个学年的核心目标都集中体现在以下这些基本问题上:1 )什么是科学?2)我们如何学习科学?3)通过学习科学,我们对世界有什么样的认识? 对于单元基本问题来说,我们在《岩石和矿石》这一单元中提出了以下基本问题:1)岩石由什么组成?2)岩石是如何形成的?3)生活中什么样的人会被称为“铁石心肠”?4)什么样的人会被比喻成像岩石一样伟大? 基本问题有哪些要求? 好的基本问题,要符合以下要求: 符合学校的任务要求、教育理念和基准; 在学生接受范围内的、具有创造性、且发人深省的; 要有一定的逻辑性; 反映概念上的优先性; 充分展现课程内容; 能促使学生进行批判性思考; 要有时间上的可行性,且能够被评估; 具有独特性; 学生能够回答得上来; 有多种答案; 能够将课程内容、学生技能和评估联系起来 如何设置和呈现基本问题? 首先,回顾一下学校的任务要求和理念,并对某一特定课程的基准进行研究,以便更好的了解学生需要学习什么和能够做什么。 其次,根据这些基本信息和标准,在开始进行单元学习之前,思考相关的基本问题,便于自己和学生回答。仔细阅读课本和教辅资料。然后,指定个别老师或年级小组将这些基本问题写出,这种方法能够提高老师之间的共同协作力和凝聚力,符合学校教育大纲规定。根据为课程所设定的基本问题,为每一特定单元设定2-5个问题,其中至少要有一个问题能够将学生引入到道德纬度。 再次,提前计划安排好最终评估,在学生完成单元学习后进行。该评估要挑战学生去回答这些单元基本问题,并学会运用所学内容。 之后,在写教案时,要预留一定的课堂时间给学生思考并回答这些基本问题。 最后,将基本问题公布出来,纳入学校课程规划中(如果学院允许的话)。并在学生或家长微信群、教学大纲或课堂网站上公布,便于学生或家长随时随地思考这些问题,比如说在回家途中或用餐时。也可以将这些问题张贴在教室墙上,供老师和学生今后参考,或与来访者一起分享。 为什么要设定这些基本问题? 我们注意到,基本问题可以作为桥梁,将学校的基本理念和年级基准与课程紧密联系起来。 您有没有想过:如何才能充分地将课程内容全部展现出来,让学生完全接受?基本问题可以帮助你解决这个问题。这些问题强调单元学习,帮助你更好地取舍:忽略那些对问题无用的、不重要的内容。 你是否经常会感到,自己所付出的努力比学生还要多?不用担心!基本问题可以有效地将学习的主动权交给学生。为何不给学生更多的机会,让他们主动去设置并回答这些问题呢?鼓励学生自己完成这一任务,也可以和搭档一起,或者组成小组进行讨论,然后再和全班同学一起分享所学到的内容。 更重要的是,有些基本问题还可以将学生引入到道德纬度。在教学过程中,想要自然地做到这一点,是很不容易的。我们需要认真思考,有计划地将道德概念与课程内容结合在一起。 通过采用基本问题的形式,将课程内容与道德教育相结合,这是一件很有意义的事情,也是我们在达到基准后,必然要提升的一个过程。 资源 1. http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/109004/chapters/What-Makes-a-Question-Essential%C2%A2.aspx 2. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/essential-questions 后续问题和活动 1.你认为在实施“基本问题”的方法时,会遇到哪些挑战? 2.除基本问题外,有什么其它的方法可以将基准与课堂教学联系在一起? 3. 为你的课程或单元设置一些基本问题。并随时与我们一起分享。 (翻译:Esther马海燕) Pageview 833Report 写留言
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