注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

Pragmatics 语用学

Research, Application & Developmt Trend

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

网易考拉推荐

从语言学角度看中西方教育的差别    

2016-11-11 09:38:41|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
从语言学角度看中西方教育的差别 原创 2016-10-27 Lang Sun 幸福家庭圈  点击关注--幸福家庭圈   【编者按】孙浪先生是UBC继续教育学院的主任,也是一位资深的语言专家。在前不久的一次清华校友教育论坛上,他专门分析了中西方教育的差别。本文是他从语言学角度再次探讨这种差别的渊源。 A comparative look at the Western and Chinese education systems from a linguistic point of view by Lang Sun Abstract This short essay aims on illustrating similarities and differences between the Western and Chinese education systems from a linguistic point of view through etymology, synonyms, homonyms, prefix and suffix, pictographs, radicals, and ideographs, etc. Such comparative look would help us better understand ramifications of the cultural divergence and convergence in the field of education between the west and east. The examples are given in current Canadian and Chinese context. What is the definition of education? Etymologically speaking, the English word "education" is derived from the Latin educatus ("Abreeding, a bringing up, a rearing") from ēdūcō ("I educate, I train") which is related to the homonym ēdūcō. The prefix e or ex (out) +the stem ducere “to lead” give reference to "I lead forth, I takeout". According to "Century Dictionary," educere, of a child, is"usually with reference to bodily nurture, while educare refers more frequently to the mind." The etymology of education seems to support Plato’s views on education that emphasize on drawing out or unfolding the powers of mind. Synoptically, the purpose of education from Platonic point of view is to free the soul, to liberate what resides in single individuals, hence called liberal education. According to Shuowen Jiezi 说文解字, the oldest Chinese characters dictionary, the Chinese word for education jiaoyu “教育” is explained as following: older people set up good examples for younger ones to emulate so that the latter are well nurtured to become good and to do good things“教,上所施,下所效也”;“育,养子使作善也”。 Functionally speaking, the similarity between education and jiaoyu 教育 is obvious in that the ultimate purpose of education is to bring up a child while facilitating the learning and acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits. The difference boils down rather on who takes more responsibilities in the process of education and how this process unfolds. In order for us to understand the role that an educator plays in the process of education, let’s first of all take a look at some of the synonyms of educator in English and Chinese. In English, we see an educator being called teacher, instructor, professor, coach, mentor, tutor, pedagogue,supervisor, preceptor, schoolmaster/mistress, trainer, guide, lecturer, etc.,whereas in Chinese we have jiaoyujia “教育家”,jiaoshi “教师”,laoshi”老师”,xiansheng” 先生”,jiaoshou”教授”,jiangshi”讲师”,daoshi”导师”,jiaoyuan”教员”,jiaoshujiang”教书 匠”,yuanding” 园丁”, etc.. Again the similarities are clear. The primary role of an educator is to teach “Old English t?can (pasttense t?hte, past participle t?ht) "to show, point out, declare,demonstrate," also "to give instruction, train, assign, direct; warn; persuade," from Proto-Germanic *taikijan "to show (jiao 教)", to profess (xuajiao 宣教), to lecture(jiangyan 讲 演), to guide (daoshi 引导). But the differences arealso evident: 1) English synonyms seem to suggest that whatever one does in education, he/she is a professional and connoted with a simple and neutral suffix of “er” or “or” whereas the Chinese words strongly emphasize on the hierarchical system in a more authoritarian way: jia 家-an honorific suffix given to someone who has formed a school of thoughts in any given field,shi 师-another honorific suffix given to someone who has mastered the knowledge of any givenfield; yuan 员-a simple job indicator; jiang 匠-a smith-like tradesperson, and ding 丁-a nobody in the ladder; 2) in the process of education, the role of books is being amplified for the Chinese as we see a teacher being called jiaoshujiang 教书匠 or simply jiaoshude 教书的-literally someone who teaches books. 3) age/knowledge/experience plays a much bigger role in Chinese education system as illustrated in: 先生-born before me,laoshi 老师-old master. As a matter of fact, the Chinese word for teaching itself is derived from the pictograph of an old person. For that reason, anyone who carries out the performance review-kaohe 考核 or examination-kaoshi 考试 is called kaoguan 考官 which shares the same radical as to educate or to teach (jiao 教) in the creation of Chinese characters. Clearly, the onus of education is laid on the shoulders of the ones who educate. Subsequently,educators tend to take the credits for the success as well as the blame for the failure. For those being educated, a student in English refers to someone who studies, a Latin studium which means to be diligent. In Chinese, the traditional characters for study xue 学 depicts a boy sitting on his desk and holding a book to read. The connotation of study for the Chinese stresses on the value of books, more precisely the classic books from the ancestors. To some extent, to read a book equates to study: dushu 读书. Consequently, when passing by a Canadian school classroom, the success of a lesson is often perceived by how much students are boisterously interacting with each other and engaged in dialoguing, debating, and group discussions and projects whereas in Chinese system, higher marks are given to those who listen attentively to the lectureor indulge themselves in silent reading. Given the understanding that the Western education preaches more on the development of individual potential of students whereas the Chinese emphasizes more on the respect of history,ancestral wisdom and authority, it does not surprise us to read the following guiding principles or mission statement from British Columbia, a province from the west coast of Canada and China: Mission Statement of British Columbia Education The purpose of the British Columbia School System is to enable all learners to develop their individual potential and to acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to contribute to a healthy, democratic and pluralistic society and a prosperousand sustainable economy. Guiding Principles of China Education 中国的教育方针 教育法规定我国的教育方针是:教育必须为社会主义现代化建设服务,必须与生产劳动 相结合,培养德、智、体等方面全面发展的社会主义事业的建设者和接班人。 The Education Act of our country stipulates that our education guiding principles are: education must serve the construction of socialist modernization, must be combined with the productivity and production output, and produces the builders and successors of the socialist cause with well-rounded development in all aspects such as moral standard, intellectual capabilities and physical wellbeing. With the above, we understand that the rest of elements such as goals of education, curriculum design and delivery, funding, certification criteria for teachers, teaching styles and approaches, grading and evaluation of students, etc. in education varies between the two systems: Instead of going through all the categories and elements, it would be interesting to compare at the end of this short essay what constitutes a good student from Canadian education system vs Chinese education system in their respective anecdotal school reports. In Canada, some frequent positive comments on a student are: Enthusiastically participates in ... Demonstrates superior work in ... Comprehends quickly Takes pride in his/herwork Demonstrates initiative Listens and follows directions well Asks for responsibilities and follows through Expresses ideas clearly Writes fascinating stories Exhibits organizational skills Does neat, thorough work Seeks information independently Enjoys dramatization Uses English correctly Has a delightful sense of humor Is well-liked by peers Demonstrates leadership skills Out of these comments, the most outstanding descriptors would be enthusiastic, having high self-esteem and taking pride in, demonstrating initiative and leadership, independent, and having a delightful sense of humor. Now, let’s take a good at what a Chinese teacher would typically say about a good student: 小明同学:一个人的聪明才智并不需要时刻地在别人面前炫耀。跳绳比赛获得一等奖,是你锻炼的结果,老师也为此高兴。思维活跃,好奇心强你爱学习,可是由于不够虚心,成绩不稳定。如果你在学习上再刻苦些,能认真书写,那么你将成为一名少先队员。 小明同学:一直以来,个子小小的你就懂得去关心老师和同学,默默地为班集体做事。有这样的学生我感到骄傲。你思维活跃,上进心强,学习自觉主动,这学期还加入了少先队,祝贺你。如果你能严格要求自己,认真书写,你将成为一个优秀的少先队员。 小明同学一直为能早日加入少先队而不懈努力,现在如愿以偿了,祝贺你!尊师爱校,上进心强的你,默默地为班集体做事,同学们也很喜欢你。希望以后专心听讲,积极举手回答题,认真书写,做一个人人敬佩的小班干。 小明同学:活泼好动的你在校运会上一展才华,挥手一掷,获得垒球比赛第一名,值得高兴。你思维活跃,爱学习,愿意为班集体做事。但你不够虚心,上课爱讲话,有时不完成作业,所以老师有时不那么喜欢你。希望你能正视自己的缺点,注意个人卫生,做将人见人爱好学生。 小明同学:这一学期,老师一直为你在作业书写上的进步感到骄傲。你尊师爱校,文明有礼,强烈的上进心使你自觉学习,成绩进步大。如果你能积极开动脑筋,大胆回答问题,锻炼自己的口头表达能力,那么你的成绩将更上一层楼。 The common positive descriptors from a Chinese teacher are: respectful of teachers and well liked by peers, well-behaved in class, hardworking, doing neat and thorough work,excellent in academics yet humble and modest. From the etymology and synonyms of English vocabulary to the pictographs and ideographs of Chinese characters, the commonalities and differences between the Western and Chinese education systems are self-explanatory, conceptually and practically. As much as there aredifferences, we must admit there are many cross-overs. As we know, educational matters both in the West and China are constantly in evolution and seek for better understanding and solutions. While the Chinese values their ancestral wisdom and respects the role of old sage, we hear also Mencius saying some two thousand years ago that “if I had to place all my faith in the books, I’drather read no books-jin xin shu, bu ru wu shu 尽信书不如无书”. On the other hand, we are compelled by the urgency from the West for fostering more humility in our youngones. (孙浪 温哥华幸福家庭群群友) 幸福家庭圈 关注“幸福家庭圈”,与幸福家庭相伴,与成功人士同行,与优秀孩子共成长!关注方法请点击本文最上方的蓝色“幸福家庭圈”即可或长按下面二维码,本微信公众号的文章,也欢迎转发分享。谢谢! 赞赏 Pageview 4484Report 写留言
  评论这张
 
阅读(12)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017