注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

Pragmatics 语用学

Research, Application & Developmt Trend

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

网易考拉推荐

Top 10 Common Differences Between Western and Chinese Culture    

2016-11-07 09:23:47|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
Top 10 Common Differences Between Western and Chinese Culture 2016-04-06 NiubiPanda Click↑NiubiPanda↑Niubi Yourself ! The most awesome Chinese and foreign community in the world While many articles have been written about cross-cultural misunderstandings and miscommunications betweenforeigners and Chinese, often times, these articles are written from the perspective of the expat. The following article, which recently appeared on wenxuecity.com, follows similar ground but from a Chinese perspective, and for a Chinese audience (hence all of references to "foreigners" which in this case, generally means "Westerners"). While we may think that some of the explanations are a bit odd, it is nonetheless an interesting piece of cultural anthropology. With no further ado, here are the top ten misunderstands according to Chinese. 虽然很多文章已经写过跨文化误解还有中国人和外国人之间的误解,大多数时候,这些文章都是从外国人的角度写的。下面这篇文章,是最近出现在wenxuecity.com上的一篇文章,也是描述类似方向的文章,但却是从中国的角度来看的,相对于中国观众(所有引用“外国人”,在这种情况下,通常意味着“西方人”)。虽然我们可能觉得有些这方面的阐释有点老套,但这仍然是一个非常有趣的人文学。言归正传,下面是中国人的十大理解误区。 1Praise (赞美) Foreigners take delight in praising others, and are also happy to receive praise, but Chinese will often refuse another person's praise in order to demonstrate their modesty. This refusal will likely baffle foreigners, as it seems to them that you don't accept their sentiment. Meanwhile, Chinese will often say kind words to another person with whom they are trying to curry favour. One way we ingratiate ourselves is by telling guests things like: "You must be tired? You should go and have a good rest" (您应该很累吧?好好休息一下). However foreigners will misunderstand this common greeting, and instead think that you are commenting on the state of their physical appearance. Foreigners really like it when others exaggerate their youthfulness or strength, and if you question their physical heath (as in the above example), they may get upset. 外国人乐于赞美别人,,也乐意接受赞美,但中国人通常会拒绝别人的赞美来表示他们的谦逊。这个拒绝在外国人看来可能会很困惑,因为他们会觉得,你不接受他们的情感表达。与此同时,中国人总是会对一个他想讨好的人说一些关心的话。我们让自己舒服的一种方法是这样告诉客人:“你一定很累了吗?你应该去好好休息一下”(您应该很累吧?好好休息一下吧)。然而外国人往往会误解这种常见的问候,会觉得这是你对他们外在的质疑。外国人很喜欢别人当面夸赞自己的青春和力量,如果你质疑他们的身体健康(像上面的例子一样),他们可能会生气。 2Saying "Thank you" (致谢) Chinese believe that you needn't say "thank you" to family members or good friends after they help you, and that saying such a thing actually implies an unfriendly or estranged relationship. But foreigners are accustomed to saying "thank you" when a family member or good friend helps them, and they are taught to use polite language such as "thanks" and "please". So, when you're hanging out with foreigners, you definitely don't want to be ungenerous with your "thank yous". Not saying "thanks" will cause foreigners to assume that you are shy or impolite. 中国人认为在家人或者好朋友帮助你之后你不必说谢谢,因为这样会让人觉得不够亲近关系比较疏远。但外国人在家人或者朋友帮助后习惯于说“谢谢”,他们被教导要使用礼貌用语,如“谢谢”和“请”。所以,当你和外国人接触的时候,一定不要吝啬你的“谢谢”。如果不说谢谢的话,会让外国人觉得你有些害羞或者不礼貌。 3Traveling with a friend (出游) When Chinese travel with friends, if someone wants to buy some souvenir, they will generally first calculate how many people are in the group, and then purchase accordingly. Even if someone politely declined, Chinese will still buy one for him or her. But when travelling with a foreigner, if you decline a souvenir, don't expect to get one anyway. Foreigners believe that they are respecting your decision by not buying you something after you've declined it. So, if you really want something, you should directly say so. And afterwards, be sure to sincerely thank them (see #2); in their eyes, that's the polite way of doing it. 当中国人和朋友旅行的时候,如果有人想买一些纪念品,他们通常会首先计算组中有多少人,然后购买。即使有人礼貌地拒绝,中国人依然会为他或她买一个。但当跟一个外国人一起旅行的时候,如果你拒绝了这个纪念品,就不可能有人帮你买。外国人认为在你拒绝之后应该尊重你的观点不给你买。所以,如果你真的想要某样东西,你应该直接说。然后,一定要真诚地感谢他们;在他们眼中,这是最礼貌的方法。 4Addressing (称呼) When foreigners hear Chinese referring to them as laowai (老外), they're unhappy, because they don't think of themselves as being old, but as young and healthy. It's only after they hear Chinese call a small child laowai that they realise that it has nothing to do with age, that it's just a respectful form of address for foreigners. 当外国人听到中国叫他们老外(老外),他们感觉不开心,因为他们不认为自己很老,而且非常的年轻和健康。直到他们听到中国人称一个小孩子老外的时候,他们才意识到,这与年龄根本无关,它只是对一个外国人尊敬的称呼罢了。 5Seeing somebody off (送别) The manner in which Chinese express emotions is relatively restrained. When seeing somebody off, choking back your tears, being stingy in your embrace and other "indifferent" displays of affection will deeply shock foreigners. So, if you're saying goodbye to a foreigner, your manner should be a bit more unrestrained, lest they think of you as cold-hearted. 中国人表达情感的方式相对比较克制。在离别的时候,努力抑制自己的眼泪,不会开怀拥抱甚至其他“漠不关心”的态度都让外国人感到很震惊。所以,如果你跟一个外国人离别的时候,你不应该过分克制你的情感宣泄,以免他们认为你比较冷血。 6Give yourself a round of applause (鼓掌) During Chinese public speeches, if others start applauding something the speaker has said, to express his or her gratitude, the speaker will generally pause the speech and start clapping along with the audience. Foreigners don't understand why you'd want to applaud yourself, which they see as very immodest. So, if your giving a speech in front of a bunch of foreigners, it'd be better to bow or wave instead of applause. Of course, just smiling and standing there is an option as well. 在中国公众演讲中,如果其他人开始为演讲者说的一些东西鼓掌来表达他或她的感激之情,演讲者通常会暂停演讲并且随着观众开始一起鼓掌。外国人会误解成你想自己赞美你自己,他们认为这很是不庄重的。所以,如果你在一群外国人面前演讲,正确的方式是鞠躬或者挥手,而不是掌声。当然,微笑着站在那里也是个不错的选择。 7Eye contact (眼神) For many Chinese, when talking with others or giving a public speech, we shy away from making eye contact with the audience, as it's considered quite rude. But when foreigners give public speeches, they are sure to keep near-constant eye contact with the audience, and it's unlikely that you'll see a public speaker who buries their head in their manuscript while talking. If you don't have the courage to keep eye contact with your audience during your public speech, then don't expect the audience to interact or fully engage in what you're saying. 对许多中国人来说,与他人交谈或公共演讲时,我们会回避与观众眼神的交流,因为它被认为是非常粗鲁的行为。但当外国人做公共演讲,他们肯定会持续保持和观众的目光交流,你也不太可能会看到一个演讲者在他们说话时埋头看他们的手稿。如果在公众演讲时你连和观众保持眼神交流的勇气都没有,那么就别指望观众跟你互动或耐心听你说的内容。 8Gift giving (送礼) Chinese like to give gifts in pairs, such as two bottles of wine, two cigarettes etc. This is done both to show that we are not stingy, and because two is a culturally auspicious number. Also, when visiting a friend or a relative's house, it's very common for us to bring them some fruit. But in the West, when someone gives someone else a bottle of wine as a gift, it is always a single bottle. Perhaps this is because it is custom to drink the bottle of wine that the guest brings with the meal, and if the guest brings two bottles of wine, it would seem as if they are a bit of an alcoholic. It's also uncommon for foreigners to bring fruit to a friend or relative's house – fruit is generally the kind of gift that you'd bring someone staying in a hospital. Also, when Chinese receive gifts from others, it's custom to take the gift and quietly set it aside and wait to open the gift until after the guests have left (lest they come off as greedy). Conversely, foreigners hope that you'll open the gift in front of them, and then thank you for the gift afterward. 在巴黎中国人喜欢送礼物,如两瓶酒,两条香烟等等。这样做不是因为我们很吝啬,是因为二在中国文化中是一个吉利的数字。另外,当我们拜访一个朋友或亲戚家的时候,对我们来说,带一些水果是很常见的一种做法。但是在西方,如果有人想送别人葡萄酒的时候,通常都会只送一瓶。也许这是因为习惯上喝一瓶酒,如果客人带来了两瓶酒,也许看起来就有点像酒鬼的感觉。也很少见外国人给一个朋友或亲戚家里带来水果,水果一般是用来送给在医院里病人的礼物。同样,当中国收到别人的礼物时,一般会悄悄地把它放在一边,等到客人离开后再打开(以免让人觉得有些贪心)。相反,外国人希望你在他们面前就打开礼物,然后真诚的说声谢谢。 9Being a guest in someone's house (做客) When Chinese visit someone's house, they like to roam about and peek around at everything. But how will foreigners look upon these acts? Although it's hospitable to make a guest feel at home, for foreigners, it's still taboo for guests to meander around their house nonchalantly invading their privacy. Similarly, we should refrain from asking them about private matters such as their salary, age etc. 当中国人拜访别人家时,他们喜欢参观一下,到处看看。但是外国人如何看待这些行为呢?虽然他们好客,也想让客人有宾至如归的感觉,但是对于外国人来说,这种若无其事侵犯他们的隐私的事情是应该避讳的。同样的,我们应该避免询问他们的私事,如薪水、年龄等。 10Eating (吃饭) Many misunderstandings with foreigners take place at the dinner table. When Chinese invite foreigners to eat at their house, they will likely prepare 8-10 dishes. It's best to mentally prepare the foreigners for the size of the meal to come, otherwise they will probably not have any room left by the time the final dishes come out. If you go to a foreigner's house for a meal, there may only be one or two dishes on the table. Also, the way foreigners will comment on the meal ("These dishes are all so tasty") are completely different from the way Chinese people comment on the meal ("this dish is too [X]…I'll make do with it and eat a little bit."). Chinese express their interest in others by giving them bits of food to eat, which foreigners never do – they're most happy to let people pick and choose what they want to eat by themselves. Also, when dining with a foreigner, don't act humble or subtle about what you want to eat – most foreigners are very direct, and if they ask you if you like eating something and you politely decline, they'll respect your decision and won't try to give it to you again. So, when dining with foreigners, if you're hungry, let them know! In short, foreigners' expressions and methods of dealing with people are very direct, and Chinese are more tactful. 许多与外国人发生的误解都在餐桌上。当中国人邀请外国人在家里吃饭时,他们很可能会准备8 - 10菜。最好是提前让他们知道这顿饭的大小,否则他们可能不会为后来上来的菜留胃口。如果你去一个外国人的家里吃饭,桌子上可能只会有一个或者两个菜。此外,外国人评论这顿饭的时候(“这些菜都很好吃”),方式也完全不同于中国人(“这道菜太[X]…我只想吃一点点。”)。 中国人表达他们对其他人很好的方式是帮他们拿食物吃,而外国人从来不这么做,他们更乐于让其他人自己选择喜欢吃的食物。跟一个外国人吃饭时,不要委婉的说你想吃什么,大多数外国人都很直接,如果他们问你是否喜欢吃某一样东西,他们会尊重你的决定,不会再试图让你继续吃。在跟外国人吃饭的时候,如果你饿了,让他们知道就好! 简而言之,外国人的表达和处理的方法是非常直接的,而中国人更委婉一些。 熊 猫 外 教 扫码关注微信公众号,更多精彩内容,敬请期待! Follow Panda Guides Official Pageview 326825Report
  评论这张
 
阅读(6)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017