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Pragmatics 语用学

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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。


A Westerner's Guide to Chinese Drin   

2016-11-07 09:25:28|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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A Westerner's Guide to Chinese Drinking Culture 2015-09-04 A. W. GuideinChina ???????????????????Click "GuideinChina" above ↑↑↑ to follow us. A HANDFUL OF RULES, in case you find yourself at a Chinese party — and by this I mean fully Chinese, as in your Chinese boss or business partner invites you for dinner and you’re the only foreigner there (drinking with young Chinese people in mixed company doesn’t count — they’ll do things ‘our’ way). Hope you find them useful. “ Drying the cup Gān bēi ” Whatever you’re drinking — baijiu (Chinese liquor), vodka, beer, wine — forget your fancy ideas of savouring the bouquet and whatnot. You’ll be doing toasts one after another, and toasts mean drinking up. It’s called ganbei, which translates literally as “drying the cup.” You’d better do it, or be forever branded as a disrespectful sissy. “ Be respectful Jìng jiǔ” People will likely toast you to show their respect and hospitality. As a foreigner, you’re not expected to do likewise, but it will be much appreciated if you do. Once you’ve started, make sure you toast everyone who might outrank you. It’s called jing jiu: “respectfully proposing a drink.” If the people are many and you’re worried your head might not take it well, you can tick them off in twos and threes; it’s perfectly acceptable. Remember: if you’re the one offering the toast, you’re putting yourself in an inferior position, which means you have to be the more respectful one. Thus, it’s better if you stand up and empty your cup completely. The other person may remain seated and drink just a bit, but usually they will go out of their way to show you the same respect — it’s just good manners. If you want to impress your hosts even more, remember to hold your glass in both hands (one propping up the bottom). Afterwards you can tip it slightly towards the person you were drinking with to show them you’ve drunk up. “ Clinking glasses Pèng bēi ” This one’s tricky and very easy to overlook. If the party is big and everyone is toasting at the same time, instead of getting up and clinking with everyone else, people might simply clink the surface of the table with the bottom of the glass. But if you’re toasting one or two people, they’ll usually want to clink glasses, even if the table is very big. If you do this, try to make sure that the brink of your glass is lower then theirs; it’s another way of showing respect. Usually they’ll try doing it as well, but if your respective positions are quite obvious, they won’t try too hard as it would be false modesty. The situation gets tricky when both persons hold more or less the same status, then the glasses might keep going down and down, until they actually land on the table and no one can go lower anymore. But that’s not all; if you clink with the actual glass, it means you want to ganbei — bottoms up. If you’d rather avoid it, you can hold your glass so that you touch the other person’s cup with the backs of your fingers. In this way you signal that you’d prefer to take it slowly, or suiyi – “as you wish” (although it still doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll get away with it). This is not an option if you’re the one proposing the toast to someone senior; in that case you have to empty the glass and that’s it. Courage, quantity, and quality The running opinion is that Westerners can drink much more than Asians. It’s perfectly all right if you get drunk, even during business dinners. In fact, it’s kind of expected. If you leave sober, your hosts might think they’ve failed to show the proper hospitality. As a foreigner you might be required to drink even more, since the running opinion is that Westerners can drink much more than Asians. Then again, in China, as everywhere else, it’s a point of pride to be able to hold your drink. The bottom line is, it’s best if you drink whatever they give you. This is called jiudan — “drink courage” — and the more you have of it, the better. Of course having jiudan doesn’t authomatically mean you have a good jiuliang — “drinking capacity” or the ability to hold your drink. But this really doesn’t matter, as long as you have good jiupin — “drink manners” or meaning the way you behave when inebriated. Ideally you’ll have all three, but if you don’t, the first one is the most important. “ Chinese liquor Bái jiǔ ” After reading the last point I can see a lot of people thinking, “wow, that’s great! I can drink all I want, I’ll probably outdrink everyone else and if I don’t, they’ll like me all the more for it!” Fair enough, Western people usually can drink more than Asians. But let’s not get too cocky. First, the alcohol you’ll be drinking will not necessarily be to your liking. I’ve yet to find a foreigner who says they actually like drinking baijiu or gaoliang jiu (Chinese rice and sorghum liquors, as strong as vodka), which is what will likely be served. If you have a choice, you might prefer huangjiu — less strong and very sweet, definitely tastier to our unaccustomed palate. Nowadays beer is also a popular choice; if that’s what’s served, you’re safe, as Chinese beer is much weaker than Western. That being so, you’ll have to drink up whole glassfuls of it. At least make sure they give it to you cold and not tepid, as they often drink it. “ Exit strategies ” But the best thing you can do to keep yourself in order is: eat. Sometimes you’ll just want to stay sober. And yes, there are ways to do it. For example, you might not be forced to drink if you’re driving. Or if you’re a woman. Chinese women and, by extension, all women are not required to drink as much. Or if you remember to pretend from the beginning that you “just don’t drink” — but then you you have to stick to it til the end, so make your choice wisely. But the best thing you can do to keep yourself in order is: eat. Sometimes when you’ve really had enough, you might toast with water or tea (although if you’ve already shown that you can drink a lot, they might just laugh at you for not having enough “drink courage”). But the best thing you can do to keep yourself in order is: eat. Eat, eat, and never stop. It’s a Chinese banquet, so there’ll be plenty of fatty food on the table. If there’s liquor to be drunk, shovel it up even if you’re on the point of bursting. If you’re vegetarian — or, worse, vegan — remember to fill up at home as most likely there’ll be precious little you can eat (I’ve seen my vegan German flatmate trapped in this situation once. He held out bravely, but the next day he said it wasn’t pretty). If all this seems a bit daunting, don’t worry too much. Your hosts know you’re used to a different way of doing things and they’ll not expect you to follow their rules. If you observe them, you’re scoring extra points, but nothing bad will happen if you get it wrong. They simply want to make you feel welcome. So just put on a big smile, enjoy the hospitality and — drink up whatever they give you. Ganbei! Source:By Agnieszka Walulik from matadornetwork Picture are from the internet Comment below!(click "写评论" at the bottom of the page) to let us know. And don't forget to share this article with friends by pressing "..." in the top right corner. Follow us to receive daily updates with info on China and our newest positions! Pageview 1016621Report 精选留言 写留言 53 Grant I have been quite lucky to not be forced to drink. But find it quite insulting if they say you are being disrespectful if you refuse. I understand the tradition idea but there is a fine line to find a happy medium to respect each others cultures 2015年9月4日 51 James-杰姆斯 Great. I often drink with only older Chinese and want to be respectful. Thanks for the tips GiC! 干杯! 2015年9月4日 51 Necro Uggh, I never drink and really hate it. But I have been positions where I had no choice but drink. Luckily you can usually get beer if everyone knows you're not a drinker. The downside is that it's almost impossible to get it actually cold most of the year. 2015年9月4日 40 Marvin 马文 Had bai jiu once... No idea how i got home... 2015年9月4日 40 翻译26种外语 What you described in this article is mainly something happened in the past. Nowadays more and more Chinese people choose to drink in a more easy and relaxed way. You can drink whatever or whenever you like. You can also drink nothing except hot water. No red tape, no formality, being happy and relaxed is something that matters most. 2015年9月4日 38 Kai This tradition is insane. drinking capabilities as measure for manhood. it is time to toss some nonsense traditions. 2015年9月4日 35 Radi If I have to drink with businesses associates or the boss and I know it will end ugly, I will order yogurt and this saved my life a couple of times. 2015年9月4日 33 包总 I learned how to drink here in China. As a consultant, drinking with clients and bosses create some sort of relationship/rapore, quite important in winning the business deal! 2015年9月4日 30 Adam 霍向东 ???? It depend on who you are with. I always say I'm allergic to alcohol so I don't drink although they sometimes still try to persuade me! I find the refusal of cigarettes more tough, I have been offered them many times and some Chinese find refusal of them quite disrespectful too. 2015年9月5日 28 G Been to the Bai jiu gan bei session, it's a bad idea lol. I tried to change my glass of drink with beer instead but I've been kinda caught in the act and continued to drink same. Result is I ended up fainted. I didn't take part in any drinking customs after then. In China I only stick to beers.? 2015年9月4日 26 王非凡 Actually,drinking alchol is always painful for me,no matter it chinese Baijiu or forigner beer. But to show my respect to everyone, i will Ganbei every time. 2015年10月2日 25 Oxana Starlight Very true, but not all of it ... I am the only foreign girl in my company, and I just happen to be Russian. As u know, there is a common misleading that all Russians are freaking good when it comes to drinking. Well, apparently, my company takes it as serious as the Bible, and tries to get me drunk so eagerly that my stomach starts to twist and shake long before the dinner takes place the only strategy is to hide in the bathroom any time u see some of your colleagues attempts to rise his glass. SEE THE GLASS, DETECT THE INTENTION, RUUUUN 2015年10月15日 21 夏天夏尔巴(天巴)尼泊尔。 I love bai Jiu but some times out of control. 2015年10月8日 5 Mike Grigg Good article, nothing about cigarettes in the mix though - that can definitely make you even worse. 2月2日 2 Joseph 周游 my father in law is chinese, he only drinks with me.he quit drinking with friends because they always force drinks and smokes on him. 5月24日 以上留言由公众号筛选后显示 了解留言功能详情
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