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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

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Brief Introduction of Chinese Culture 用英文讲解中国文化    

2016-11-07 09:28:08|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Brief Introduction of Chinese Culture 用英文讲解中国文化 2015-12-26 学汉语LearnMandarin Chinese Dragon Dragon totem worship in China has been around for the last 8,000 years. The ancients in China considered the dragon (or loong) a fetish that combines animals including the fish, snake, horse and ox with cloud, thunder, lightning and other natural celestial phenomena. The Chinese dragon was formed in accordance with the multicultural fusion process of the Chinese nation. To the Chinese, the dragon signifies innovation and cohesion. 中国龙 对龙图腾的崇拜在中国大约已绵延了八千多年。中国龙是古人将鱼、蛇、马、牛等动物与云雾、雷电等自然天象集合而成的一种神物。中国龙的形成与中华民族的多元融合过程同步。在中国人的心目中,龙具有振奋腾飞、开拓变化的寓意和团结凝聚的精神。 The Great Wall The Great Wall is one of the wonders of the world that created by human beings! If you come to China without climbing the Great Wall, it's just like going Paris without visiting the Eiffel Tower; or going to Egypt without visiting the Pyramids! Men often say, "He who doest not reach the Great Wall is not a true man."In fact, it began as independent walls for different states when it was first built, and did not become the "Great Wall" until the Qin Dynasty. However, the wall we see today, starting from Shanhaiguan Pass in the east to Jiayunguan Pass in the west, was mostly built during the Ming Dynasty. 长城是人类创造的世界奇迹之一。如果你到了中国却没去过长城,就像到了巴黎没有去看看菲尔铁塔,或者就像到了埃及没有去看金字塔一样。人们常说:“不到长城非好汉。”实际上,长城最初只是一些断断续续的城墙,直到秦朝统一中国后才将其连城长城。然而,今天我们看到的长城——东起山海关,西至嘉峪关——大部分都是在明代修建的。 Chinese Kung Fu Chinese kung fu, or Chinese martial arts, carries traditional Chinese culture in abundance. It is a traditional Chinese sport which applies the art of attack and defence in combat and the motions engaged with a series of skill and tricks. The core idea of Chinese king fu is derived from the Confucian theory of both “the mean and harmony” and “cultivating qi” (otherwise known as nourishing one’s spirit). Meanwhile, it also includes thoughts of Taoism and Buddhism. Chinese kung fu has a long history, with multi-various sects and many different boxing styles, and emphasizes coupling hardness with softness and internal and external training. It contains the ancient great thinkers’ pondering of life and the universe. The skills in wielding the 18 kinds of weapons named by the later generations mainly involve the skills of bare-handed boxing, such as shadow boxing (Taijiquan), form and will boxing (Xingyiquan), eight trigram palm (Baguazhang), and the skills of kung fu weaponry, such as the skill of using swords, spears, two-edged swords and halberds, axes, tomahawks, kooks, prongs and so on. 中国功夫即中国武术,是将技击寓于搏斗和套路运动之中的中国传统体育项目,承载着丰富的中国民族传统文化。其核心思想是儒家的中和养气之说,同时兼容了道家、释家的思想。中国武术源远流长、流派林立、拳种繁多,讲究刚柔并济、内外兼修,蕴含着先哲们对生命和宇宙的参悟。后世所称十八般武艺,主要指:徒手拳艺,如太极拳、形意拳、八卦掌等;器械功夫,如刀枪剑戟、斧钺钩叉等。 Chinese Chopsticks The Chinese way of eating with chopsticks is unique in the world. The recorded history of chopsticks started more than three thousand years ago. Chopsticks were named zhu in ancient Chinese. They look deceptively simple to use, but possess multi-various functions, such as clamping, turning over, lifting up, raking, stirring, scooping, poking, tearing, and so on. Chopsticks were taken as an auspicious mascot by ordinary people in ancient China. For example, the partial tone of chopsticks is often used by people as a metaphor at weddings to indicate a blessing or benediction for the couple to have a baby soon. Unlike using a knife and fork or one’s own hands, a pair of chopsticks also implies the meaning of “Harmony is what matters”. Chopsticks are highly praised by Westerners as a hallmark of ancient oriental civilization. 筷子 中国人使用筷子就餐的方式在世界上独树一帜。有史记载用筷的历史已有三千多年。筷子古时称为箸,它看似简单,但却同时具有夹、拨、挑、扒、拌、撮、戳、撕等多种功能。中国民间视筷子为吉祥之物,如婚俗中将筷子隐喻为快生贵子的祝福等。与使用刀叉以及手抓的 方式不同,成双结对的筷子含有“和为贵“的意蕴。西方人赞誉筷子是古老的东方文明。 Yangko Yangko is one of tradition folk dance of Han in China. It is usually performed in northern provinces. The dancers usually wear colorful and light costumes, and the performance is powerful and rapid. During some festivals such as Spring Festival, Lantein Festival, if people hear the sound of drum and gong, no matter how cold the weather is , they will come to street and appreciate the Yangko. Recent years, the old people in city of east-northern of China organized the team of Yangko by themselves, the teamers keep their health by dancing Yangko the whole year. 秧歌 秧歌舞是中国汉族的一种民间传统舞蹈,通常在北方省份表演。秧歌舞者通常穿上明亮多彩的表演服装,他们的表演动作有力迅速。在农历春节、元宵节等节日期间,人们一旦听到锣鼓声,不管外面天气有多冷,他们都会蜂拥到街上看秧歌舞表演。近年来,中国东北某些城市的老年人自发组织了了秧歌队,队员常年通过跳秧歌舞来保持健康,同事他们也乐在其中。 Dumplings Dumplings are one of the Chinese people’s favorite traditional dishes. According to an ancient Chinese legend, dumplings were first made by the medical saint---Zhang Zhongjing. There are three steps involved in making dumplings: 1) make dumpling wrappers out of dumpling flour; 2) prepare the dumpling stuffing; 3) make dumplings and boil them. With thin and elastic dough skin, fresh and tender stuffing, delicious taste, and unique shapes, dumplings are worth eating hundreds of times. There’s an old saying that claims, “Nothing could be more delicious than dumplings”. During the Spring Festival and other holidays, or when treating relatives and friends, Chinese people like to follow the auspicious custom of eating dumplings. To Chinese people who show high reverence for family love, having dumplings at the moment the old year is replaced by the new is an essential part of bidding farewell to the old and ushering in the new year. 饺子是深受中国人民喜爱的传统食品。相传为古代医圣张仲景发明。饺子的制作是包括: 1)擀皮、2)备馅、3)包馅水煮三个步骤。其特点是皮薄馅嫩,味道鲜美,形状独特,百食不厌。民间有“好吃不过饺子”的俗语。中国人接亲待客、逢年过节都有包饺子吃的习俗,寓意吉利。对崇尚亲情的中国人来说,“更岁交子”吃饺子,更是欢度除夕、辞旧迎新必不可少的内容。 Acupuncture Acupuncture is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In accordance with the “main and collateral channels” theory in TCM, the purpose of acupuncture is to dredge the channel and regulate qi and blood, so as to keep the body’s yin and yang balanced and achieve reconciliation between the internal organs. It features in traditional Chinese medicine that “internal diseases are to be treated with external therapy”. The main therapy of acupuncture involves using needles to pierce certain acupoints of the patient’s body, or adopting moxibustion to stimulate the patient’s acupoints so as to stimulate the channels and relieve pain. With its unique advantages, acupuncture has been handed down generation after generation and has now spread all over the world. Nowadays, acupuncture, along with Chinese food, kung fu (otherwise known as Chinese martial arts), and traditional Chinese medicine, has been internationally hailed as one of the “four new national treasures.” 针灸是中医学的重要组成部分。按照中医的经络理论,针灸疗法主要是通过疏通经络、调和气血,来达到阴阳归于平衡,使脏腑趋于调和之目的。其特点是“内病外治”。主要疗法是用针刺入病人身体的一定穴位,或用艾火的温热刺激烧灼病人的穴位,以达到刺激经络。治疗病痛的目的。针灸以其独特的优势,流传至今并传播到了世界,与中餐、功夫、中药一起被海外誉为中国的“新四大国粹”。 Chinese Seal A seal can also be defined as a stamp. Both the Chinese official and private seal of various dynasties have different titles, such as stamp, zhu note, contract, fu, lease and others. The seals used by the emperors of ancient China were called xi, yin, bao, etc. According to historical records, seals were widely used during the Warring States Period (475BC-221BC). The making of a seal is to engrave fonts, such as seal characters and official script and so on; or images in the form of intaglio and embossment into the seal, basically shaped as round or square. Covered with a vermilion overlay, the Chinese seal is not only used in daily life, but it is also used to represent signatures on paintings and calligraphies. It is gradually becoming one of China’s unique artworks. 印章就是图章。中国历代官、私所用的印章有印信、朱记、合同、符、契等等不同的称谓,而帝王所用的印章古时称玺、印、宝、章等。据史料记载,印章在战国时代已普遍使用。印章的制作是将篆隶等字体、图像用阴、阳的形式雕刻而成,形状以圆、方为主。印章用朱色 钤盖,除日常应用外,又多用于书画题识,逐渐成为中国特有的艺术形式之一。 Chinese Era The Chinese era is the symbol that the Chinese calendar uses for recording and naming years. The ten Heavenly Stems are: jia, yi, bing, ding, wu, ji, geng, xin, ren, gui. The twelve Earthly Branches are: zi.chou, yin, mou, chen, si, wu, wei, shen, you, xu, hai. After observing the lunar month, the ancients found that the moon always wazes and wanes roughly 12 times a year, and two lunar months account for about 60 days, so the order of the ten Heavenly Stems and the order of the twelve Earthly Branches are properly matched in turn. In terms of recording date, 60 years is considered to be a full time cycle. The Chinese era chronology was first invented in ancient times and is still in use now. according to the chronology of the “ten Heavenly Stems,” 2011 is the year of “the seventh of the ten Heavenly Stems” and “ the fifth of the twelve Earthly Branches”. 纪年法 天干地支是中国历法中用以记录和命名年岁的方法。十天干为:甲、乙、丙、丁、戊、已、庚、辛、壬、癸;十二地支为:子、丑、寅、卯、辰、巳、午、未、申、酉、戊、亥。古人观测朔望月,发现月亮圆缺12次大体上是一年的天数,而两个朔望月约是60天。古人以十天干与十二地支的顺序依次相配,记录不同年份,60年为一个轮回。干支纪年法从古沿用至今。按干支纪年法,2011年便是辛卯年。 Chinese Beijing Opera Praised as “Oriental Opera”, Beijing Opera is a genuine national quintessence of China. It originated from many kinds of ancient local operas, especially huiban in southern China. At the end of the 19th Century, Beijing Opera evolved and took shape, becoming the greatest kind of opera in China. Beijing Opera is a blend of performing arts---song, speech, performance, acrobatix fighting and dance. Beijing Opera portrays and narrates the plot and characters through stylized acting. The main types of roles in Beijing Opera are sheng(male), dan (young female), jing (painted face, male), and chou( clown, male or female). 京剧被誉为“东方歌剧”, 是地道的中国国粹。它起源于中国多种古老的地方戏剧,特别是南方的“徽班”。到了19世纪末,京剧形成并成为中国最大的戏曲剧种。京剧是综合性表演艺术,集唱(歌唱)、念(念白)、做(表演)、打(武)、舞(舞蹈)为一体,通过程式化的表演手段,叙述故事,刻画人物。角色主要分生(男性)、旦(女性)、净(男性)、丑(男性女性皆有)四大行当。 Chinese Taoism Taoism first originated in China. The founder of Taoism is Laozi, a philosopher and thinker who lived in the late Spring and Autumn Period (770BC-476BC). Tao Te Ching whose authorship has been attributed to Laozi, is considered to be the main Taoist classic. Taoism advocates the value of a human being’s life, recommends the discarding of all desires and worries from one’s mind, and encourages the cultivation of moral character and the nourishment of human nature. The following is an example of Laozi’s golden saying: The way that can be told of is not an unvarying way; The names that can be named are not unvarying names. It was from the nameless that Heaven and Earth sprang; The named is but the mother that rears the ten thousand creatures, each after its kind. Truly, only he that rids himself forever of desire can see the secret essences; He that has never rid himself of desire can see only the outcomes. 道教是中国土生土长长的宗教。创始人是春秋末期的哲学家、思想家老子。道教以老子所著的《道德经》为主要经典。道教主张“重人贵生”。崇尚清静无为,修身养性。“道可道,非常道。名可名,非常名。无名天地之始;有名万物之母。故常无,欲以观其妙;常有,欲以观其徼”便是老子的至理名言。 Chinese Idioms Chinese idioms refer to comprehensive and integrated fixed phrases and expressions. Idioms are established and accepted by constant usage and common practice. An idiom is a language unit that is larger than a word, but has the same grammatical function as a word. Most Chinese idioms consist of four characters. For example, ziqiangbuxi ( make unremitting efforts to improve oneself), qingchuyulan(bluer than indigo), and houjibofa (success comes with time and effort). Idioms are extrated from folk proverbs, ancient works of literature, poems, fables, allusions, and well-known sayings. Idioms are a part of the Chinese language that are concise and have great vitality. 中国成语是汉语中意义完整的表示一般概念的固定词组或短语。“成语”中的“成”既是约定俗成。成语是比词大而语法功能又相当于词的语言单位。绝大多数的中国成语由四个汉字组成,例如:自强不息、青出于蓝、厚积薄发。成语主要从民间谚语、古代文学作品、诗歌、寓言、典故、名言警句等方面提炼而成,是汉语语言中精炼而又富有生命力的一部分。 Chinese silk China is the home of silk. Mulberry planting, sericulture, silk reeling and thickening are all great inventions of the ancient Chinese. As early as the Shang and Zhou Dynasties (1600BC-256BC), the Chinese people’s silk-weaving techniques had reached an extremely high level. During the Western Han Dynasty (206BC-25AD), Zhang Qian, an outstanding diplomat, travelled around central Asia and connected China with the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean, opening up a new era of Sino-foreign trade, exchange and communication. From then on, China’s silk became well known for its extraordinary quality, exquisite design and color, and abundant culture connotations. Hitherto, Chinese silk has been accepted as a symbol of Chinese culture and the emissary of oriental civilization. 中国丝绸 中国是丝绸的故乡。栽桑、养蚕、缫丝、织绸是中国古代人民的伟大发明。商周时期丝绸的生产技术就已发展到相当高的水平。西汉时张骞通西域,把中原与波斯湾、地中海紧密联系起来,开辟了中外交流贸易的新纪元。从此中国的丝绸以其卓越的品质、精美的花色和丰富的文化内涵闻名于世,成为中国文化的象征。东方文明的使者。 Pageview 3744Report
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