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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

“英文摘要写作”的建议   

2016-11-09 18:48:20|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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《计算机科学》稿件——“英文摘要写作”的建议 2016-10-12 计算机科学 1 基本特性 Abstract 基本类型: 报道性,指示性,报道-指示性和结构式文摘注意摘要与前言的区别,有关背景资料(background information)放前言中 1 基本特性 独立短文:独立性 The first studies byShuford et al. (Polym Eng Sci 1976,16,25) of the effect of draw ratio on thepiezoelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) films concluded that theeffect of molecular orientation due to draw prior to film polarization was toincrease greatly the piezoelectric response. Compare the results, according to the equations(1), (2), (3), (4), defining inhibition type is competitive one. EI的文摘长度一般不超过150 words,或1500字母。 美国物理学会Style Manual, 不超过500个单词。 2 时态 以一般现在时为主,也使用一般过去时和现在完成时 说法一:从理论上讲: 一般现在时 通过科学实验取得的研究结果、结论,揭示自然界的客观规律 一般过去时 在一定范围内所观察到的自然现象的规律性认识,这种认识也许有一定的局限性 现在完成时 表明过程的延续性,虽某事件(或过程)发生在过去,但强调对现实所产生的影响 以一般现在时为主,也使用一般过去时和现在完成时 说法二: EI 数据库建议: 用过去时态叙述作者工作; 用现在时态叙述作者结论。 说法三 论文是通过科学实验揭示客观真理。所取得的结果,无论是过去,还是现在或将耒都是如此。故常用现在时表达。 过去时“表达一件过去发生过的事,而且现在已经完结了。”如文中指出发生的日期和时间是写文章之前,必须用过去时,例:This was first known in 1930. 许多论文,虽然是作者过去做的工作和得到的结论,然而这些工作和结论并不是达到“完结了”的阶段,而是还会有人,也可能是作者本人,继续研究下去,从而产生进一步的改进和完善。从这一角度出发,可以用现在完成时来描述已做过的工作,以表达这种延续性。例:Man has not yet discovered an effective cure for the common cold.(人类至今尚未发现一种有效治疗感冒的方法。)句中隐含着估计一段时间后也不会发现,但是将耒能否会有,尚有待事实来说明。 3 语态 目前,英文摘要仍以被动语态具多(见上例),这种语态“可以在主语部分集中较多的信息,起到信息前置,语义鲜明突出的效果。”【1】 主动语态也偶有出现,并有增长的趋势,认为“主动语态表达的语句文字清晰、简捷明快,表现力强,动作的执行者和动作的承受者一目了然,往往那给人一种干净利落、泾渭分明的感觉。”【1】 主动语态举例 We report rheological data on anionic polyelectrolytesolutions of variable chain length and concentration, …… We have studied the dehydration underatmospheric pressure for ……,NiNa4(PO3)·6H2O ,between 25 and 700℃ by thermal analyses (TG, DTA), infrared spectrometry and X-raydiffraction. …… ……We find that one component (polyimide)controls the permeability values and activation energies for helium permeationin the blends. …… ……To examine the effect of electric field onthe aggregation structure of the particles, we observed light scattering of thesuspension under an electric field, and found that the scattering patternbecame anisotropic. …… ……We demonstrate the thermally activatednature of theβ-PMMA and β-P(VDF-TrFE)relaxation, with activation energies of 29.3 and 13.5 kcal/mol, respectively. …… ……We refer to the lamellar thickeningprocess as a type of secondary crystallization. …… 概括起来: ·作者告诉读者论述怎样的主题,可用现在时 ·用过去时及其被动语态叙述实验方法与过程,;表示实验前业已完成的动作(过去的过去),用过去完成时。例如: The crystallized samples had been polishedbefore they were etched in a 0.5% HF solution at a temperature of 25℃ for 2 s, ·对实验结果可用现在时(表示客观真理)或现在完成时(已取得的阶段性成果)。 关于结构式文摘 据统计,目前世界上约有60%的核心生物医学期刊采用结构式摘要,但此种摘要不适合综述之类的文章。 结构式文摘是按Objective(目的)、Methods(方法)、Results(结果)和Conclusions(结论)逐一阐述论文的梗概。在Objective项,可直接用动词不定式的一般式主动语态,如To provide, To explore, …; Methods和Results 项,可用一般过去时(有时也用现在完成时)及其被动语态;Conclusions则用一般现在时(参见:韩仲琪,李炳汝,王庆法. 医学论文英文摘要格式及其写作问题. 编辑学报,2002,14(6):412) Objective 动词不定式开头 To investigate … To study … To explore … To examine … To determine … To report … To review … 使用第一人称时,用凡指的we, the author, the authors ,不用I。 如:In this paper we conclude … Methods 用完整的句子,以被动句和过去时态为主。 Results 用一般过去时陈述实验结果。 Conclusions 集中表达作者的学术观点。 参见:刘雪立.医学论文英文结构式摘要的写作,中国科技期刊研究,2003,14(4):452 4 语法修辞 参见:吕萍,曹云立.科技期刊英文摘要的编写要求.编辑学报,2003,15(1):35 (1) 力求简捷 at a temperature of 250℃ to 300℃ → at 250to 300℃ at a high pressure of 2 kPa → at 2 kPa has been found to increase → increased from the experimental results, it can beconcluded that → the results show (2) 能用名词作定语的不用动名词作定语,那用形容词作定语的不用名词作定语 measuring accuracy →measurement accuracy experiment results →experimental results (3) 可直接用名词或名词短语作定语的情况下,要少用of句型 accuracy of measurement → measurement accuracy structure of crystal → crystal structure (4) 可用动词的情况尽量避免用动词的名词形式 Measurement of thickness of plastic sheet wasmade → Thickness of plastic sheet wasmeasured (5) 一个名词不宜用多个前置形容词来修饰,可改用复合词,兼用后置定语 thermal oxidation apparentactivation energy → apparent active energy ofthermo-oxidation 5 一个典型示例 A detailed study of the meltingbehavior of oriented isotactic polypropylene has been carried out usingdifferential scanning calorimetry. The orientation in isotacticpolypropylene was produced by extruding it in solid phase. Atextrusion ratio (ER ) greater four, two melting peaks were observed. Withincreasing ER, the lower temperature peak was found to shift to highertemperature. The corresponding shift in the higher temperature peak was muchless. It is shown that these peaks originate in the melting ofcrystalline species having different degrees of crystal disorder andstereo-block character. 此例回答了如下四个问题: 回答做了什么? (研究工作范围) ——用DSC 研究聚丙烯的熔融行为 回答怎样做的? (实验要点) ——固体拉伸取向 回答结果如何? (主要结论) ——两个熔融峰及其随拉伸比的变化 回答原因何在? (结果的解释,结论) ——存在不同晶体 6 化学常用句式 (1)研究范围 (to be)carried out performed made conducted (to be) studied investigated (to be) described deal with elucidated given presented developed employed derived prepared synthesized monitored determined measured observed recorded examined characterized identified tested calculated proposed used to study used to establish evaluated discussed (2) 实验要点 (to be) prepared bythe reaction of … with … ynthesized via reacting obtainedvia condensation by means of by using by the use of using … as … over a wide range of … over a broad composition range over most of the range of … over the entire … range covered the ranges from … to … in the range of … in the temperature range from … to … with a variety of … contents containing … percent or more … in the presence of … in the absence of … (3)主要结论 主动语态(或被动语态)的表达形式(见上例 ) 用That 从句表示实验结果 The results indicated that … The results show that … The results demonstrated that … The results reveal that … 由It 引起的that 从句 It was shown that … It can be seen that … It was found that … It was discovered that … It was concluded that … It has been demonstrated that … It was clarified that … It was revealed that … It is considered that … It was confirmed that … It is suggested that … It was supposed that … It has become apparent that … 以… to be 后的表语成分表示测定、计算等的结果 The rate constant of the catalyticreaction was calculated to be 5.67x106 cm3 mol-1s-1. The theoretical equation was provedto be correct by the experimental results. 表示具有某种影响,以及数量的依赖、增减关系 … 与 … 有关 … (to be)correlatedwith … associated with … related to … dependent upon … independent of … in relation to … in alinear relationship with … proportional to … inversely proportional to … … depends on … The dependence of … on … … increase with the increase of … … decrease with the increase of … (不)相符的表示方法 … (to be) in good agreement with … (to be) found to agree well with … … (to be) consistent with … … (to be) essentially identical with … … (to be) found to coincide essentially with… … (to be) closely analogous to … … (to be) similar to … Good agreement (to be)found between … … (to be) contrary to … … (to be) in contrast with … (4)结果解释(结论) … (to be) due to dueto … (to be) attributed to … (may be) … (to be) assigned to … … (to be) interpreted on the basis of … … can be caused by … … may be explained by … … originate in … … (to be) discussed in terms of … Pageview 361Report
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