注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

Pragmatics 语用学

Research, Application & Developmt Trend

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

网易考拉推荐

Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate?  

2016-02-16 01:39:50|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
You are using an outdated version of Chrome which is not supported by ResearchGate anymore. For a faster, safer browsing experience, upgrade your browser now.
Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
The University of Edinburgh

Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate?

In considering the issue of fun and learning (how schools might take the fun out of learning), one teacher writes the following. 

“….?I wonder if it’s the point at which we start to frame the school as a factory, and the learners as workers, that the real damage starts to be done? Some of the ways this can happen are very explicit. Today on BBC Click, for example, I saw a wall display headed “Our best work”. I see a lot of displays and notices around schools, and am surprised how many use the language of a very hierarchical, unequal workplace, even in primary schools. These artefacts are evidence of learning, not factory products, and signs should reflect that. Maybe if we were to consciously avoid using factory metaphors things might improve?” 
(http://www.pedagoo.org/2012/03/stop-teaching-and-let-them-learn/)

When I was doing my teacher training, the metaphor we were offered for education (based if I remember correctly on philosophers such as R. S. Peters) was one of initiation – initiation into disciplinary ways of thinking, into ways of writing, into sports, into appreciation of art, music and literature and trying these for ourselves, and so on. Then came the eighties and a new language began to dominate that reflects technological, engineering and manufacturing metaphors for the educational process. Here are some examples of the form(s) of language that seems to me to be underpinned by these types of metaphors – our product is our students, quality indicators, specified and measurable outcomes, standards, developing our students, moving our teachers forward, producing a workforce for the future, students are a resource, and so on (how many more can you add?).

This language is pervasive – I find it difficult to avoid using myself after 30 odd years of working in an environment dominated by it. Indeed, one reason for asking the question is that I see this language used by people on RG who are grappling with issues of how to ensure education is not dehumanizing, controlling and is truly engaging and liberating for students. Are they, like me, using it through habit? However, I have even seen it specifically argued that the engineering metaphor can be used to these sorts of ends, so perhaps we are just not using the metaphors to best effect

So are there better metaphors, and resulting language for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors? Or can these be better distinguished so that the good features of them prevail? Do we return to initiation metaphors? Or do we look for some new metaphors that better serve our values?
Jan 8, 2014
10  / 0 

POPULAR ANSWERS

  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Greg L Alston · South University
    The industrial metaphor is pervasive, powerful and persistent. The Industrial model was that One guy, The boss had all the power. he delegated work, and hired labor to do the production. The boss was the brains and the workers were the brawn.

    Academia basically follows the industrial model power structure but pretends to be different because our "Bosses" are more enlightened. However below the surface we have the "Important People" professors parceling out bits of knowledge to the "less Important" student. The Professor has the knowledge and the students have to be given it by the professor because they are not capable of getting it on their own.

    The centralization of authority and lengthy process required to generate nationwide objectives for education has ensured that the industrial model persists. 

    The reality is that learning has always happened without Academia, For example, Billions of people have learned to speak Mandarin Chinese without ever attending school. Their parents taught them at home or they learned by listening to people speak. It is my contention that the best and brightest could be handed the textbook and told what to study and come back at the end of their class and pass the final. This raises two questions:

    What does the educator add to the process?
    Why can't all the students do this on their own?

    In Peter Drucker's New World order of Accellerating Change, Increasing Complexity, and Global Competition Printed Textbooks and last years lectures are obsolete before they begin. And some would argue that Academic education is slow, provides outdated information and is far too expensive for the result.

    The way out is to shift to an Outcomes model that focuses on a growth mindset discovery pattern in which students seek competency and knowledge because they want it. And an educational environment in which people collect skills at their own pace rather than be forced in to the same rate as every one else. Think of the Boy Scout Merit Badge system rather than the assembly line.

    We spend most of our time in graduate education in which we are charged with developing competent health care professionals, trying to undo years of misguided fixed mindset grade seeking behaviour.
     Jan 8, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland
    It is worth remembering that the messages inferred from the metaphors we use are 'in the eyes of the beholder'. Students draw their own conclusions despite our best efforts. I personally use a range of metaphors, with a focus on participation rather than performance. My key message whichever metaphor I use for any student is one of personal satisfaction in doing a good job. I was for a time, a professional dancer and the greatest pleasure was not the performance, though pleasurable, but the rehearsal, the striving to be always better than I was the time before, so I try to incorporate that into my teaching. The industrial/job filling metaphor is useful in many students eyes as it is the reality for them at later stages of schooling. Trying to give them a range of metaphors is useful. Industrial, social, participative, self worth so students can move themseleves through these metaphors as they need in their self talk.
     Jan 14, 2014

ALL ANSWERS (77)

12
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Colin A Smith · The University of Edinburgh

    Very interesting contributions. Late for me here, so will sleep on idea of education being in driving seat. Thanks to all.

     Oct 10, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学

    We have a tendency to reduce learning to the episteme.  The episteme metaphor reduces learning to what we  can say, to what we can explain; it reduces learning to the intellect and to the world of words. We accept that it is not the case for trades or manual or artistic types of learning but for the sciences we have a tendency to reduce learning to the episteme.  The episteme metaphor is very damaging for the sciences.  It has to be replaced by the doing/techne metaphor prevalent in the manual labor and the artistic fields. Polanyi was a proponent of this techne metaphor for learning science; he called it the tacit dimension.  He was saying that we know much more than we can tell and that most of our scientific knowledge is implicitly embodied into our practices and that theoretical knowledge can only be discovered from the intuitive within of our practice  Comenius was talking of the learning by doing instead of by being told.  The techne metaphor engages the educator in a very different way than the episteme metaphor.  Epistemic testing and scoring and rewardingnis not the ultimate evaluation anymore.  The techne metaphor is an embodied metaphor while the episteme metaphor is desembodied since it can be wordly embodied.  The techne metaphor like intuition and imagination and all that can be feel but not necessarily explained.  It does not substitute the world of words to the world we experience and does not tries to discover the world we experience primarily guided by words and the intellect but let the body leads and use words only after to explain, to communicate and do a bit of episteme but is not in the driver seat.  Words are an hypnotic music of the intellect and transform us into zombie of the intellect.  The techne metaphor put us back in control but it is a hard and a tiresome metaphor; we have to keep doing. The episteme metaphor has been forged by the philosophers of the enlightment.  Philsophy for most of them became the art of writing the book of the world, the art of saying the world.  An art which denies to be an art.  Pierre  Hadot have showed that ancient philosophy was not about saying the world but was a primarily about a doing, a way of life informed by saying the world but primarily an art of life.

     Oct 16, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Jelle van Dijk · Universiteit Twente

    for the doing metaphor we could use techne

     Oct 16, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学

    Thanks Jelle for the sudgestion.  I made the changes and so making the techne metaphor more hypnotically pleasing for the intellect which always want to go in the driver seat and reject it.

     Oct 16, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland

    Linda and Colin, I have put the question as supplied to a small number of students. My 16/17 year old Chemistry students contributed in small groups. Only a couple of the 15/16 year olds showed any interest. Another class is going to look at it and when complete, I'll scan the responses and upload it here.

     Oct 27, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Colin A Smith · The University of Edinburgh

    Thanks Mark. Great and looking forward to them. Interesting in itself that seem show interest and some do not. A proper research project for someone there who is able to file a formal proposal somewhere.

    Louis. I wonder how the techne metaphor applies to literature, history and so on. I think I can see where you are coming from in the sciences (doing science, rather than passively learn it), although the episteme, if I understand the term correctly and I may not, also seems important - science does aim to describe and explain (put things into words {and formulae}).

    Fillipo - thanks for adding another metaphor. Could you expand on it and show us how it is more representative of the educational process than the ones we started with? Thanks.

    For some reason, since returning from holiday, I cannot go backwards in RG at the moment or upvote answers (several days now), but I wanted to return to the idea that employers say we are in charge - forgive me if memory is playing tricks  and I am not citing it correctly as I cannot reread the original posting. Certainly, when I was teaching it did not feel like we were in charge as we were told that we were not meeting employers' requirements (by the press and politicians, i think, though they claimed to be giving the views of employers). Interesting that some  employers at least do take on the argument that I thought was only made by academics that basing education on the needs of industry etc was an infertile line to take. However, it does put a tremendous responsibility upon us to find the right sort of metaphors

     Oct 27, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学

    Colin,

    The episteme or what we comprehend in a way that we can expressed in language is always important but according to the techne metaphor is should be in the passenger seat.  First you practice, experience.  The talking whould be about favoring the techne and course should always provide opportunity to experiment.  Even writing essays or the creation of episteme is in itself a techne.  But just listening about how to write essays and not doing essays is not in the techne spirit. The two needs to be there but the techne in the driver seat and the episteme in the passenger seat.  

     Oct 27, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Jelle van Dijk · Universiteit Twente

    I am now reading Hannah Arendt's book The Human Condition - and it gives an altogether new perspective. I have only just began reading but what I understand the old Greek city-states favored Action over Contemplation (which came much later, and marked the beginning of philosophy as we know it, with Socrates, Plato and Aristotle as the first to favor contemplation - not acting but pure thinking - over action). Now that seems like favoring techne over episteme, But note that Action was not the same as physical labor, because labor and in general the biological struggle to 'stay alive' and produce off-spring were part of the domestic household and primarily the task of slaves and women, while the pater familias would go out as a 'free man' and be part of  the city (the Polis) to discuss and talk with other free men, and that talking as member of the Polis was considered Action. So to Act was more like to take a stand on things than to actually craft or produce something, if I understand it correctly. As in a political act, (Polis - Politics). To be free to discuss amongst equals in the city, and to prove that you were the best amongst the others (show your courage) was the ideal, and you needed to have sorted out your household business (if needed by force and violence) first, such that you would be free to do so.

    Not sure at all how it relates to this discussion really - but I thought I'd share it, perhaps there's some more useful metaphors in it. If I understand more of the work I will come back to it.

     Oct 27, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学

    Jelle,

    The free citizen of the polis were the soldiers.  Socrates and Plato were soldier until the age of 60.  They understood political action but they understood combat action, real ultimate physical action.  Courage was a fundamental value given the phalange battle technique which was a highly collective skill which was as good as the weakest link.  Lack of courage by only a few means collective death.  Cultivation of body strenght and courage was fundamental.

     Oct 27, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Lennart Rolandsson · Uppsala University

    I love this thread. Thanks for sharing!

     Oct 31, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Jelle van Dijk · Universiteit Twente

    Dear Louis,

    Yes, I understood so, but thanks for the details. Do you see a positive aspect in this for thinking about present-day education or do you see it as mostly leading us into dark waters?

    On a more technical level: what interests me at least is that physical action was not separated conceptually from 'taking a stand' on something. In my Phd thesis I analysed people discussing in small groups and, because they were using an interactive floor projection we designed, I was specifically interested in the relation between physical, bodily position and the 'position' people were taking in the conversation, and how all of that relates to the way people collaboratively learn and make sense of things. At that microlevel one sees that 'taking a position' is both physical (literal) and conceptual at the same time, and that 'making sense' of things always means taking up a position with respect to other people.

     Nov 1, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Paul Hubert Vossen · Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Mannheim

    Our language, both natural and scientific, is full of metaphors, the origin of which is either unknown, lost, unconsciously or ignored (unless attended to) because it is so common/natural in the cultural context of discussion (cf. link).

    • E.g., Holland's history and culture is strongly tied with its struggle with water, so it is natural for Jelle van Dijk to use the phrase "dark water" where others would use a different metaphor, e.g. dark forests (e.g. in South of Germany), or a more neutral phrase like "troubles" (although interestingly there is also a famous song with the name "Bridge over troubled water" ...)

    Anyway, what I want to say is that we are normally bathing in a sea (yes, I am Dutch too ;-) of concepts, or thoughts, which shouldn't be taken too literally (because they are just metaphors) nor too abstractly (because they loose all meaning then, or may mean anything you like).

    • You know of course the test: repeat by speaking a single not too trivial word many times in a stroke, after a while the word will indeed loose its meaning ...

    Back to our discussion: what we call "theory" may be taken as something completely abstractly, or arbritarily, because we have invented its meaning by construction. For instance, logicians have a very clear, but highly special, concept of "theory", which has nothing to do with what e.g. physicists or social scientists call "theory".

    But: actually the word "theory" itself stems from old greek, and in that language (and thus presumably also in the minds of the people formerly speaking that language) the meaning of "theory" is strongly tied to vision, visual perception.

    That immediately raises the question, what would have happened if we human beings wouldn't have got visual perception. What we as scientist be talking about e.g. harmony all the day, and our explanations and experiments would be full of concepts and methods borrowed from the practice of speaking and hearing as well as sound and music and the structures studied currently by audiologists and musicologists, playing the role of methodologists?

    I am not sure whether this helps much, but I thought it might clear the waters a bit so that we might better see through it at thehidden meaning of metaphors.

     Nov 1, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Paul Hubert Vossen · Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Mannheim

    BTW: did you realize that the word "metaphor" is itself a metaphor? [cf. entry "etymology" at wikipedia]

    What does that imply for science, or at least for the linguistic theory of George Lakoff, the author of the book I recommended? Are we foreverdoomed to explain metaphors by other metaphors? And the latter by still other metaphors?

    What will we arrive at in the end, i.e. when we don't see or have other metaphors to exploit? Or would we by that time have forgotten about the original "explanandum", the concept to be explained, and use it as our current metaphor, thereby creating an awful circularity in our intended explanations?

    Of course, natural languages do allow circularity. The famous "Paradox of the Liar" can be fully explained logically by such circularity in certain (most?) languages (cf. link).

    Perhaps metaphoric circularity is not so awful after all, not even in science, research, and education? How often, in your lectures, do you refer your students to stuff they should have learned already in other lectures by colleagues of yours, without checking whether the latter refer again to your lectures to explain what they are teaching?

    Paraphrasing George Lakoff I like to propose that education is alll about "Metaphors we Teach by" (lecturers) and about "Metaphors we Learn by" (students).

     Nov 1, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Jelle van Dijk · Universiteit Twente

    Metaphors are also dangerous. We think our eyes are 'a kind of camera' and that our brains are 'a kind of computer'. Such metaphors used to be drivers for progress in science, but later on started to hinder further progress as the metaphor became so powerful that they started to overrule any alternative perspective.

     Nov 1, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Paul Hubert Vossen · Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Mannheim

    @ Jelle : of course, I fully agree. But that was not my point. 

     Nov 1, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland

    From a neurological perspective, does the way the brain learns and remembers by pattern matching in itself a description of metaphor. Perhaps it is 'hardwired'.

     Nov 1, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学

    Jelle,

    Your observations on the bodily/mimetic languages confirm t Merlin Donald'notion on how language evolved from a mimetic language that is still there integrated into us.  Mithen's book: the singing neantherthal expands this notion and include dance and singing into the original cocktail.  Before the time of writing, our cosmologies where all expressed into a mythic style, a style dominates by metaphor.  Still most religions and most ancient native culture express their most sacred knowledge in the mythic style.  It makes a lot of sense for a varieties of reasons.  The mythic style do not at all tries to be realist.  It tries to teach by showing the underlying psychologies of the various situation not realistically but theatrically, metaphorically.  It is much more effective ways to engage people directly making use of our natural theory of mind.  When writing began to dominate aroung the fifth century BC in what is called the axial age, it also displaced the mythic style for a discussive naturalisitc historical realistic style and that style do not engage our entire theory of mind, it privilege our object side of it and the world began to be disenchanted by the gradual dominance of this style which diminished the people reliance into their full artistic intuition which make use of the whole theory of mind.  

     Nov 1, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Jelle van Dijk · Universiteit Twente

    @ Paul, I read something of Barwise and Perry - can't remember what it was about. I think their work got reviewed in a book by Bill Clancey, called Situated Cognition, which you might like. He has a very detailed and nuanced view on how meaning emerges in situated action what the role of (external) representation is in it.

    I like your idea of the circularity of metaphorical grounding. I tried to think of whether I could come up with a historical example that might be just that. But I cannot even reason whether or not I would actually be able to recognize such a circularity if it ever existed (as my capacities for recognizing things in the first place is already most probably grounded in the metaphoric series of groundings that I am trying to spot).

    Something else. (Sorry if this goes beyond the original post). It has been argued that throughout history man has always compared himself to the most advanced technologies that he has been able to create. So the Greeks, masters of waterworks, compared the human body to a waterworks system, in early industrialisation we saw our inner mechanics as clockworks, Freud, early 20th century, saw our passions and drives as a steam-engine (that needed to blow of steam once in a while), and not so long ago we conceived of the mind as a digital computer. In the nineties when the internet came we adapted that to see the brain as a network of interacting units. 

    But... what is next? I can actually think of no technological metaphor that would describe the way we presently see ourselves. Do we still see ourselves as a computer? Does that mean nothing essentially new beyond the computer has been invented yet? Or is it something else: is it that technology is now actually starting to merge with human being so literally  (artificial eyes, ears, brain implants, neurofeedback, artificial legs, robot enhancements etc) that we can no longer technology to explain the human body and mind? Just wondering.

     Nov 1, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Paul Hubert Vossen · Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Mannheim

    @ Jelle >>> Thanks for the interesting references.

    As for a new emerging metaphor replacing the computer metaphor - or IPS Information Processing System, as late Nobel laureate Herbet Simon called it, but it never took off - indeed I haven't seen it yet. It is not that there aren't very creative new interpretations of what we call e.g. memory. Actually they have been around for a while. But all metaphors you have alluded to are not purely scientific constructs, they are based on technical artifacts which proved to be so successful that many people got used to it. And then it happens, so to say.

    An explanation for the absence of a new metaphor may be that we are still in the midst of unfolding and commercializing computer/information technology. As long as the brain power of researchers and engineers is 50% occupied with ICT and for the rest with other equally challenging but more conventional technology, there seems to be no room for something fundamentally new here. Probably also we are looking on the false place then, because there's the light!

    Indeed, I doubt if you can come up with a new metaphor deliberately, i.e. on purpose. It just happens, by accidence, by serendipity. It has all to come together by chance: a cocktail of culture, economics, funding, engineering, research, science, creativity and personality. Probably the last ones are most important.

    Some may believe that we don't need metaphors of the mind any more, because now we have neurophysiology / neurobiology / neuropsychology and all those scanners and other tech stuff, but that's missing the point.

    Metaphors are for sharing (otherwise complex) knowledge among most (lay) people, the rest may be able to use more abstract concepts or technical means to understand and manipulate knowledge and do innovative research and create sophisticated theories. 

    Or so are my ideas on a sunday morning beginning november ...

     Nov 2, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Jelle van Dijk · Universiteit Twente

    Perhaps 'coctail' will be the new metaphor :-) (Both you and Louis used it just now)

     Nov 3, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学

    Metaphors are not vehicle of precise knowledge but all our knowledge even the scientific knowledge is pervaded by powerfull metaphors and the most powerfull and important one are so ingrained that everybody act by them without knowing it.  Ask people in marketing about the power of metaphor to make people act.  Being so powerfull means that they can be powerfully used for good ends and powerfully used for damaging ends.  Metaphor is like music.  We adopt them if we like them but we do not know why.  Metaphor are not strictly interpreted by the rational part of our Mind, they speak to our subconscious and are approved or reject by this subconscious without us knowing why.  They allow us to go much further than what we consciously know and are not limited to our intellectual power but are connecting to our whole.  It is why they are so powerfull, can change the world for the best and for the worst.  Another reason education ideal should be expressed metaphorically instead of being express discursively is that the discursive style in its very form objectify and so can only transform humans into objects.  The discourse may say it is not the case, may acknowledge that humans are not objects but the discourse in the discoursive form in discoursive culture is its theoretical form necessarily and absolutely objefify any subject matter including humans.  A metaphorical style do not have this limitation, it is naturally anthropomorphic, naturally animistic, acknowledge naturally that humans have will are not object and so allow all this natural tendencies in us to express themselve through a metaphorical style.  Poetry is the ultimate oral metaphorical style.  So maybe a good educational metaphor should be expressed  through an educational poem.

     Nov 3, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland

    Maybe we should ask a question where contributors pen a poem on education and see what we get. Anyone mind if I do that? I'll refer to this question.

     Nov 3, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学

    Mark,

    A sudgestion for the educational poem.  The mode of the request of the poem should favor a passionate poem.  So one way to get good poem would be to find a very good one and put it in your question.  Any justification talking to the intellect will cool the poems.  So the mode of getting the poem will also need to convey the mood.  If it is cool the response will be cool.  

    Famous Education Poems | Examples of Famous Education Poetry:

    http://www.poetrysoup.com/famous/poems/education

    "We don't read and write poetry because it's cute. We read and write poetry because we are members of the human race. And the human race is filled with passion. And medicine, law, business, engineering, these are noble pursuits and necessary to sustain life. But poetry, beauty, romance, love, these are what we stay alive for. To quote from Whitman, 'O me! O life!... of the questions of these recurring; of the endless trains of the faithless--of cities filled with the foolish; what good amid these, O me, O life?' Answer. That you are here--that life exists, and identity; that the powerful play goes on and you may contribute a verse. That the powerful play goes on and you may contribute a verse.''

    What will your verse be?"

    Tom Schulman
    from "Dead Poets Society"

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyUTDJ72q9k

     Nov 4, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Colin A Smith · The University of Edinburgh

    No objections from me Mark. Thanks to all for this fascinating discussion. Hope to find time to put in my tuppence worth soon.

     Nov 4, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
    Mark E Gould · Education Queensland

    I take your point Louis.

     Nov 4, 2014
  • Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
     Nov 25, 2014
12
Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
Can you help by adding an answer?
Add your answer

More questions, even more answers

  • Over 200 000 questions asked
  • Over 1 million answers provided
  • 75% of questions answered within 48 hours
Join for free

QUESTION FOLLOWERS (39)See all

  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Views2528
  • Followers39
  • Answers77
? 2008‐2016 researchgate.net. All rights reserved.About us ·  Contact us ·  Careers ·  Developers ·  News ·  Help Center ·  Privacy ·  Terms  |  Advertising  ·  Recruiting
ResearchGate is the professional network for scientists and researchers. 

Got a question you need answered quickly?

Is there a better range of metaphors for education than the technological, engineering, manufacturing metaphors that seem currently to dominate? - 语用学博客 - Pragmatics  语用学
Technical questions like the one you've just found usually get answered within 48 hours on ResearchGate.
Sign up today to join our community of over 8 million scientific professionals.
Join for free

  评论这张
 
阅读(101)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017