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Pragmatics 语用学

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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

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Taking Steps Toward A Great College Paper   

2016-02-03 00:10:58|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Taking Steps Toward A Great College Paper Many non-native English speakers haveno idea what professors in the U.S. expectfrom a college paper. A college paper is a piece of writing thancan be as long as 20 or more pages. Evennative English-speaking college studentsstruggle with how to succeed with such a difficult responsibility. Deborah Dessaso is the Writing ResourceCoordinator at the University of the Districtof Columbia. Dessaso helps studentsreach the level of writing that collegeprofessors expect. She says college writing is very differentfrom what many students experienceearlier in their education. "Usually… a lot of high schools stress a lot of creative type writing. And so you canpretty much say what you want. Meaningis what you say it is. When you get to college you need to be able to formulatean argument and then defend it usingcredible sources." A credible source provides verifiableinformation from experts. This includesbooks, interviews, newspapers or studies. Most U.S. high schools teach studentshow to write five paragraph essays. Students are often unprepared for the amount of research they have to do for a college paper. Nabila Hijazi is one of the assistantdirectors of the University of MarylandWriting Center. Hijazi is also an international student from Syria in the second year of her PhD program in English studies. She says the language barrier is not the biggest problem for students whose firstlanguage is not English. "Sometimes I see international studentswho know English grammar more than the native or the U.S.-born students. But maybe… they do not know about the writing systems that we have here, in terms of organization, thesis, transition… They do not know how to connectsentences; how to be direct." In a traditional paper, the first paragraphoften contains the thesis statement. This statement is a one-sentence summary of the paper's main argument. The firstparagraph of a college paper, or anypaper, is usually the most challenging. The first paragraph is also the mostimportant because it will guide the structure and show the voice of the entirepaper. But not every type of writing is the same. There are also case studies and field reports in addition to traditional papers. Dessaso says that the best option for a student who wants improve their writing is to read. "One professor tells me, 'You writesomething in your head before you write it on paper'… Until you learn to imaginewhen you read, you'll never be able to imagine something that you have to writebefore you have to write it." Reading examples of the type of paperyour professor expects you to write can be very helpful. Professors sometimesprovide examples. You can also searchthe Internet for examples of papers aboutsimilar topics. But, you should never copy anotherperson's work. Professors will find out ifthe work is copied and you will get in a lotof trouble. Hijazi adds that writing a paper takes time. Students should let other students readtheir work and listen to criticism. "I try to teach them that the first draft is not the final draft. They need to be open to the idea that writing is a process. Theyhave to go through different steps, different revisions." College graduates around the world will tell you they have all been in this situation. It is the middle of the night. Your paper is due in eight hours and you have no ideawhat to write. Let's imagine that your professor tells youto write a five-page paper on this topic: "The SAT is an unfair test for international students and should no longer be required. Do you agree or disagree?" Here are four examples of how to beginwriting on this topic: 1. Tell a Story – "Nadia dreamed of goingto Harvard from the time she was 5 yearsold. 'It was my mother's dream for me,' she said. Every Saturday, she spent 10 hoursat a "cram school" studying for the SATwhile her friends went to the mall and watched movies…" 2. Use a Quote – "All the SAT measuresis how well you take the SAT. It does not show how smart a person you are," wroteblogger Amanda Chan. Chan is one of a growing number of people who argues that SAT is unfair. 3. Present a Fact – "Of the 1.6 millionstudents who took the SAT in 2013, only43 percent of test-takers met the SAT's definition for being prepared for college. It is natural to blame teachers and testtakers for not studying hard enough. But perhaps the test itself has problems…" 4. Describe a Problem – "Every yearmillions of international students are unhappy with their performance on a single test — the SAT. Years of hard workare reduced to a single test on a singleday. Is the SAT the best way for universities to choose the best students? ..." The next time you have to write a paper, remember that planning is very important. Think about what you are going to writebefore you start writing. Think about all the information you need to include and howyou will present it. If the ideas still are not coming, read yourclass materials again with these fourmethods in mind. Sooner or later, an ideawill come. Words in This Story page(s) – n. one side of a sheet of paperespecially in a book or magazine stress – v. to give special attention to something formulate – v. to create, invent, or produce something by careful thought and effort credible – adj. able to be trusted or believed verifiable - adj. something you can proveor show to be true paragraph – n. a part of a piece of writingthat usually deals with one subject, that begins on a new line, and that is made upof one or more sentences transition – v. a change from one state or condition to another case studies – n. published reports abouta person, group, or situation that has been studied over time field report(s) – n. a collection of information that explains something that is in the process of happening or recentlyhappened draft – n. a version of something such as a document that you make while workingon a project or task revision(s) – n. a change or a set of changes that corrects or improvessomething graduate(s) – n. a person who has earneda degree or diploma from a school, college, or university blogger – n. a person who uses a Website to write about their personal opinions, activities, and experiences
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