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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

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US Religious Colleges Test Anti-Discrimination Law   

2016-02-03 00:07:00|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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US Religious Colleges Test Anti-Discrimination Law "I grew up as a very strong Christian and my faith was an important part, thinkingabout moving forward with my academicstudies. And Wheaton, from what I cameto know, was widely understood as one of the best academic institutions if you’re looking for somewhere with a strongChristian tradition." Massey, 23, thought that a Christianuniversity would be a welcoming place. But there was one problem: Massey is a gay, or homosexual, man. Religious universities across the U.S. haveasked the Department of Education for permission to deny equal treatment to homosexual and transgender students. Title IX is a section of a group of lawscalled the United States EducationAmendments of 1972. Originally, Title IXprevented discrimination based on genderat schools receiving federal money. This includes any school with studentswho use federal loans to pay for theirstudies. But Title IX does include a specialexemption for religious schools. Anyschool run by a religious organization canask to ignore Title IX. The schools canmake this request if they believe Title IXdisagrees with their religious beliefs. For example, some schools that train mento be members of the clergy ask to denyaccess to women. Some religions preventwomen from training to be clergymembers. The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) is part of the U.S. Department of Education. The OCR enforces Tile IX. The OCR alsoprocesses the exemption requests. SethGalanter is the Deputy Assistant Secretaryfor Civil Rights at the OCR. Galanter said schools have always had the right to make this type of request: 227 schools have received exemption from some part of Title IX since 1972. Wheaton College in Wheaton, Illinois, received an exemption in 1985. But JustinMassey said that the school does acceptdifferent types of people. "I think Wheaton College, as a whole, is a pretty loving environment… It’s just stuckin a … political position." Problems began for Massey when he started working with the administration. Massey became involved in studentgovernment during his first year at Wheaton. At that time, he had not openly identifiedhimself as gay. But he did start organizingmeetings to support lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (or LGBT) students. During his second year, Massey tried to create a formal group supporting LGBTstudents at Wheaton, called Refuge. But the school’s administration learned that Massey was already involved in studentgovernment. They did not want a studentwith connections to a controversial issueto be part of the student government. The administration told Massey he couldnot be the leader of the group he started. "What I took that to mean was that it was because I was gay and that there was no other similar situation in which a studentwouldn’t be allowed to head up a groupbecause of a so-called conflict of interest." Galanter said that the exemptions do not allow schools to discriminate in any waythey want. "There is not a wholesale exemption. A school, private college or university is onlyexempt when Title IX conflicts with the religious organization's tenets and only to that extent. And there is an opportunity for an individual who has been harmed to challenge the exemption in an individualcase." But a growing concern among the LGBTcommunity is that the number of exemption requests has increased greatlysince 2013. These requests directlyinvolve the parts of Title IX protectingstudents based on their gender identityand sexual orientation. The Human Rights Campaign (or HRC) is an organization that protects and supportsthe rights of LGBT people. The HRCreleased a report in December 2015 on the religious universities that requestedand received these exemptions. The report showed that before 2013, onlyone school had requested an exemptionfrom the part of Title IX involving genderidentity. There were at least 43 similarrequests in 2015. Sarah Warbelow is the Legal Director for HRC. She wrote the report, called "HiddenDiscrimination." Warbelow says it is important that this information becomeswidely known. "The majority of these schools did this under the cover of silence. Very few of them talked about it publicly. They werenot telling their students." The HRC report also claimed that the increase in requests is in response to several recent actions by the U.S. government. These actions have been in support of the LGBT community. A transgender student accused the Arcadia Unified School District in Arcadia, California of discrimination in 2011. The U.S. Department of Justice and Department of Education decided in 2013 that the school system must provide the student with facilities that matched theirgender identity. The Department of Justice is pursuing a similar solution in another case. A transgender student accused the Gloucester County Public School systemin Virginia of discrimination in 2015. The U.S. Supreme Court also decided that the Constitution protects the right of same-sex marriage in 2015. Massey chose to publicly declare hissexual orientation in his third year at Wheaton. He also became very involved in LGBT rights issues. He often had problems with the administration. "There was just so many times that Wheaton was very quick to react to me or what was happening on campus becausethey were fearful of what it meant." VOA contacted Wheaton College for a comment. But the school did not give a formal response. VOA emailed 45 of the schools that have received or requestedan exemption. Several schools declined to comment. Some offered writtenstatements. Biola University in La Mirada, California is the only school with a religious exemptionto Title IX that agreed to an interview. Jerry Mackey is the university’s LegalCounsel. Mackey said there was no controversy when the school received its exemption in 1985. "To my knowledge, there was really no reaction; public, private within the institution… I just don’t think it was a controversial issue at the time at all." Mackey said the media is trying to causeproblems for religious colleges and universities. He also said that Biola is a loving place that tries to treat all of its students with care. But, Mackey said, students are free to study at any schoolthey want. "People are here because they believe this is the place that they want to be… Sonobody’s forced to come to Biola or anyschool." But Massey does not agree. Masseybelieves that not all young people havetotal control of where they can study. Some students need their parents to payfor their education. If they do not go to the school their parents want, they will not receive any higher education. Other students do not completelyunderstand their own sexuality when theyfirst make their choice of school. Massey chose to finish his four-yeardegree at Wheaton for several reasons. He did not have enough money to changeschools. Also, he had made many friendsat Wheaton whom he did not want to leave. In addition, he felt the schoolneeded students willing to fight for LGBTrights. Massey enjoyed his experience, but saysit was difficult. "If I had known what I was going to go through, I probably would have been hesitant... It’s not the duty of any minorityperson to change an institution... But I don’t regret having been at WheatonCollege." He also believes there are still more fightsto come. Words in This Story academic – adj. of or relating to schoolsand education faith – n. strong religious feelings or beliefs homosexual – adj. sexually attracted to people of the same sex transgender – adj. of or relating to peoplewho have a sexual identity that is not clearly male or clearly female gender – n. the state of being male or female exemption – n. freedom from beingrequired to do something that others are required to do lesbian – adj. a woman who is sexuallyattracted to other women bisexual – adj. sexually attracted to bothmen and women formal – adj. made or done in an officialand usually public way controversial – adj. relating to or causingmuch discussion, disagreement, or argument allowed – adj. given permission to dosomething wholesale – adj. affecting large numbersof people or things tenet(s) – n. a belief or idea that is veryimportant to a group extent – n. used to indicate the degree to which something exists, happens, or is true challenge – v. to say or show that something may not be true, correct, or legal gender identity – n. a personal belief of oneself as male or female, or rarely, bothor neither sexual orientation – n. the state of beingbisexual, heterosexual, or homosexual facilities – n. a room or rooms with a sinkand toilet and usually a bathtub or shower hesitant – adj. slow to act or speakespecially because you are nervous or unsure about what to do
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