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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

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Study Shows How Poverty Could Limit Learning   

2016-07-18 16:02:08|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Study Shows How Poverty Could Limit Learning Studies have shown that children from poor families have more difficulty in schoolthan other boys and girls. Children withhigher socioeconomic roots seem betterprepared and perform better on schooltests. Now, American researchers may havefound a biological reason for that difference. They found differences in the brains of students who had lowstandardized test scores. Their brainshad less gray matter and their temporal lobes developed more slowly than the other children. The findings were reportedin the journal JAMA Pediatrics. Temporal lobes and gray matter are veryimportant brain areas, says researcherBarbara Wolfe. She is a professor of economics, population health and publicaffairs at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. The brain areas are "critical in the sensethat they keep developing until individualsare well into their adolescence or early20s, and critical in the sense that they are important for executive function," she said. Researchers studied brain images of nearly 400 children and young adults. The youngest subjects were four years old. The oldest were 22. Researchers lookedfor a connection between the person’s socioeconomic status and his or her testresults. On average, young people from poorfamilies had test scores between threeand four points below what is expected for their age group. The poorest students scored betweeneight and 10 points below the developmental norm. Ms. Wolfe says thereare several reasons why poorer studentsoften have lower scores. One reasoncould be poor children do not get the foodthey need for healthy development. Poorparents are less likely to stimulate theirchildren’s brains through talk, play, and activities. Ms. Wolfe also blames the "stress that parents face in trying to dealwith poverty, putting food on the table." The researchers say that up to 20 percentof the achievement gap, or difference in test performance, could be tied to poverty. Ms. Wolfe suggests early action mayimprove the brain development of childrenliving in poverty. Reaching out to childrenwhen they are very young could help raisetheir test scores and academicperformance when they are older. She says that when the source of the deficit is known, "these areas of the braincan be developed," she said. "... It meansthat policies can be developed that overcome this deficit." Words in This Story standardized test – n. a test that is administered and rated in a predictable, or “standard,” way gray matter – n. neural tissue especiallyof the brain and spinal cord that containsnerve-cell bodies and has a brownish-graycolor temporal lobe – n. a large lobe of eachcerebral hemisphere in the brain pediatrics – n. a area of medicine that deals with the development, care, and diseases of babies and children adolescence – n. the period when a childdevelops into an adult status – n. of, relating to, or involvingone’s social standing or other influences stimulate – v. to cause (something) to happen or develop achievement gap – n. the differencebetween the test scores of low-income students and those of middle class or wealthier students.
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