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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

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摘抄:《语用学与翻译》    

2016-09-12 00:01:39|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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摘抄:《语用学与翻译》 原创 2016-05-02 邓良春 缘夕花树 笔记摘要: 语用即是语言运用,依靠语境分析把握翻译基本常识,建构翻译指导原则。 The Pragmatics of Translation The past fifty years have witnessedthe deepened and systematic research of translation theory and practice by alarge amount of scholars who also issued numerous articles concerning them.Translation research has got a new stage in depth and range in recent yearswhen it is discussed through acomprehensive way which is combined with various subjects such as semiotics,linguistics, sociology ,anthropology and psychology. The collection of essays ,Pragmaticsand Translation ,edited by Leo Hickey,,is one of The Series of TranslationResearch ,which was basically compiled by Susan Bassnett and EdwinGentaler.This book takes a new approach of pragmatics to study translation,providing a fresh view point for the readers. Pragmatics is a branch of linguistics ushered in through a short periodof time. Nevertheless it has transferred the traditional framework oflinguistics by making a dynamic research upon language as well as a morepractical subject because of which focusing on the language concerningpractical use and the relationship between language and its users(or therelationship between semiotics and its interpreters) As a matter of fact ,translators and their practical performance areinfluenced and restrained variably by many pragmatic factors during the wholeprocess of translation. For example, translators can find possible choices onthe target version ‘s arrangement both in part and whole when taking into account those factors such as thevarious contexts and manners of speech act, the cooperative principle , thepoliteness principle ,the semantic presupposition , the pragmaticpresupposition, the given information and the new information and so on, whichcan be explained as pragmatic equivalence between the source language and thetarget language according to Leo Hickey, where the target readers can acquirethe same comprehension and feeling to the original readers to a largest extent. The Pragmatics and Translationconsists of thirteen chapters ,which respectively come from thirteen note—worthyarticles.Writers are professors and scholars who have made great achievements in their fieldsand subjects such as translation theory ,linguistics and semiotics and so on,but who have explained the practical application of pragmatic principles into translationof various texts. Such an academic work of this book ,with both its creativeviewpoints and theoretic support of vivid and accurate examples, can provideopportunities of appreciation and reference for the translation theoryresearchers ,the translation practitioners ,the teachers and students involvedin teaching and studying linguistics and applied linguistics and otherresearchers of related subjects. 言语行为理论 P11 Furthermore ,in the light of theearlier presumption about human empathy ,a qualified universalism would have tostretch to the belief would have to stretch to the belief the illocutionaryfunctions can be comprehended across the most diverse cultural boundaries. Comments :言后意义可超越文化隔阂而存在,那么翻译中只要创建了该意义存在的机制,即可实现与原文言后意义的对接。 P14 To build a sentence is to takesome suitable (meaningful )linguistic unit and to endow it with anillocutionary function. 解读:该对接程序即是创建合适的语境单元并赋予其言后功能。 P15 …in every language, there is aset of sentential units whose function and meaning is illocutionary. 解读:句子层面单位的功能和意义是以言成事。 P18 Inshort ,the translational rendering of illocutionary functions in ST sentencescan be regularly expected to involve compensation in kind (defined as ‘compensationfor (the loss of ) a particular type of textual effect in the ST by using atextual effect of a different type in the TT’ in Hervey and Higgins.1992:248. 解读:翻译以言成事的句子功能需要借助一些补偿手段,例如可能会在目的语中失去的语境效果,但这种补偿手段究竟有哪些呢?例如,在口语中的语气,情感,态度,会在书面(翻译)语中缺失,补偿手段可包括运用标点符号,停顿等。后文将有交代。 P24 It is undoubtedly the case thatsensitive handling of the illocutionary functions of sentences (as speech acts)is an essential aspect of skill in translation and in interpreting. 解读:妥善使用句子的言后功能是一个翻译与口译的重要技巧,该技巧有哪些?如何举实例予以确认?我感到此处缺少足够的说服力,也可能是我自己没有理解。 P24 It is also evident that thisskill can be improved through the application of translation strategies basedon sound theoretical ,descriptive ,and contrastive linguistic principles. Ttheaim of this chapter has been to develop and to illustrate such a set oftranslation strategies. 解读:该技巧建立于理论的,描述的,对比的语言原则之上;如果要运用这种技巧去研究翻译,我想该三个着眼点颇具借鉴意义。 P28 Grice(1957:47)goes on to stressthat we must leave aside from the meaning of the action any secondaryintentions the doer of the action might have; that is ,any possibleperlocutionary effect (Austin,1962:ch:VIII)cannot be said to have been part ofthe meaning of what was said. 解读:所谓言后行为的效果影响,不在言语表达的第二意图,即不在说话言语意义本身。我们要区别以言成事的内涵,其所指是在言后。 P28Grice’s strategy is to reiteratethe restriction on meaning and assign all other effects to the categoryimplicature. 解读:格莱斯的策略是言语意思是有限制的,并采用其它效果来确定语语类别暗指。 会话含义理论: P33 The severest difficulties inapplying the theory of concersational cooperation to the study of literary translationarise ,in my opinion ,from its situation within a theory of meaning accordingto which understanding the meaning of a speaker’s utterance amounts ot arecognition on the part of the hearer of the speaker’s intentions in producingthe utterance on the basis of the audience’s prior (assumed )understanding ofthe speaker’s words. 解读:会话含义理论运用于文学翻译,说话者意图在听话者前理解中的话中产出。(未完全理解) P31 ..involving only written languagecues to interpretation such as tone of voice ,stress ,intensity and cadence arelost .However, there are various orthographic measures ,such as punctuation andvariations in front, available to a writer wishing to convey different degreesof emphasis and other semantic nuances which skilled readers make use ofinterpreting the text. 解读:话语语气,重音,气势,节奏在书面语中缺失,那么在书面语可采取标点,正字法(?)等手段传递原口语的强调,重音,语气,节奏,情感等信息,我认为这是一个极好的论证材料。我们常说口语与书面语有时差别很大,翻译中不可避免会使其中的心理、情感等内容缺失,但本文的观点颇具新意,令人深思。 合作原则: P37 For example ,punctuation andother orghographic measures can be adjusted by editors /translators to suit agiven readership distanced either temporally or culturally or from the writer; andsuch adjustment can be understood as a compensatory strategy explainable interms of the principle of cooperation. 解读:译者的被偿策略用于适合给定的读者群,该读者群与源语存在一定的距离:要么是时间的,要么是文化的,要么是相对于作者而言的;该该种被策略的诠释是符合合作原则理论的。 P37 On the other hand , punctuationin a literary translation may also be wildly at variance with that of the STbecause of a desire on the part of translators or editors to produce a translationwhich is ‘invisible’.(Venuti,1995) 解读:(译者所用)标点符号与源语不同是因译者想要创设一个看不见的翻译,即标点符号的语用功能隐藏在整个译语里面,不刻意显现。 P39 Insum ,I believe that the notion of conversational cooperation is as applicableto literary translation as it is to language in general ..many translationalphenomena can be described fairly systematically using concepts and descriptiveterms borrowed from it. 解读:会话合作理论可运用于文学翻译,而翻译现象也可以系统地,确切地从会话合作理论中找到借鉴。 关联理论: P44 One of the important claims of relevance theory is that there are twopsychologically distinct modes of using language:the descriptive use and theinterpretive use. P45 Hence we find that relevance theory comes with a ready made ,contextsensitive concept of faithfulness ,applying to the interpretive use of languagein general. 解读:关联理论的重要观点之上是使用语言的两个心理学特征模式——描述性使用与阐释性使用;关联理论是一种预先设定,与语境密切相关的忠实概念,一般用于对语言的解码。 P47 Hence ,such typological labels can be helpful in guiding the audiencetowards the intended interpretation ,and thus reducing the processing cost forthe audience. In this sense ,text—typological labels can serve to increase therelevance of a text or utterance ,hence performing a pragmatic function. 解读:类型标识引导受众理解翻译目的并减少受众的过程努力的代价付出;而文本、类型模式能提高文本关联度,行使语用功能。 P43 An utterance is optimally relevant (a)when it enables the audience tofind without unnecessary effort the meaning intended by the communicator and(b)when that intended meaning is worth the audience’s effort ,that is ,when itprovides adequate benefits to the audience. 解读:该段解释了最佳关联的基本特点:受众无须付出额外努力即可探出话者意图;该话语意图符合受众所付出的努力,即让受众在自己理解范围内充分受益。 P46 From a general communicationpoint of view,such terms can serve a significant purpose: they can help to coordinatethe intention of the communicator or with the expectations of the audience. P46 Inthis way labels referring to different kinds of communication can fulfil animportant pragmatic function in coordinating the activities of communicator andaudience. 解读:从交际观点出发,这些术语有助于切交际者意图或观众期待视野(是什么术语?) 以此方式,标识可在合作协同交际者与受众之间关系方面发挥重要的语用功能。 P51 When encountering a problem dueto a linguistic or lexical differences ,these are peculiar to translation,arising when language barriers are crossed. P52 Relevance can be increased ,forexample ,by providing further background information,that is ,by makingaccessible to them enough of the context of the original for them to appreciateits relevance. 解读:遇到语言和词汇方面的障碍是翻译中的特殊现象,尤其是翻译要跨越文化障碍。 要提升关联度,可借助更多的背景信息,提供更多的相关知识背景,也就是说让目的语受众获得途径接触源语语境以感知关联。 P52 Once aware of the problemsarising in secondary communication situations ,translators can anticipate themand look for appropriate means to overcome them ,which may well go beyond theusual task of translation and may require strategies for widening thecontextual knowledge of the target audience by additional means. 解读:第二交际环境下的问题有哪些呢?为解决此种问题,译者将超越翻译的常规要求而而要求通过额外手段,采取扩大受众语境知识的策略。该策略调整涉及到从词汇到语篇,我认为更为重要的是句子和语篇,因其具有创设语境的功能。虽然采用一些特殊的术语词汇也能达到此种效果,如提供背景和前景模式,但词汇不是常规手段。 P49 …such as ‘novel’,’poem’…all thesecategories can be of value in pragmatic terms ,coordinating the efforts ofcommunicator and audience in their pursuit of optimal relevance –alwaysprovided that there is sufficient agreement about these terms betweencommunicator and audience. P49 What successful communicationdoes require is consistency with the principle of relevance,..the use of theright contextual information when processing the utterance. 解读:为达成最佳关联,就需要交际者与受众在某些术语上达成一致,例如小说,诗歌等类型可以提供语用术语方面的价值。 成功的交际需要在关联的原则保持前后一致,要在发话过程中使用正确的语境信息,而不是错误的语境信息。 语用与功能对等: P63 I assume that the most importantrequirement for translation equivalence is that a translation has a functionequivalent to that of its original ,and that ‘functional equivalence’(in itsdifferent forms and types )can be established and evaluated by referringoriginal and translation to the context of situation enveloping the two texts,and by examinging the interplay of different contextual factors both reflectedin the text and shaping it. One of these factors to be taken into account in making and evaluating atranslation is ‘politeness’—an important element in achiving interpersonalequivalence. 解读:这里提出了一个功能对等的概念:在译文的形式与类型方面作出某种选择以便实现源语与译语的对等。此时,涉及到两个文本的语境因素及其相互作用成为关注内容,其中值得注意的一点就是礼貌原则,它在实现人与人之间交际对等方面发挥了重要作用。 P65 Interms of politeness as evidenced in the original ,specifically along thedimension of Tenor ,the translator can not but leave the original linguistic—textualchoices as ‘intact’ as possible given the transfer operations necessary intranslation, i.e.whatever the politeness portrayed in the original, communicativelyequivalent choices must be made. 解读:译者考虑到语域,需要保持源语的文本选择的完整性(?),在源语交际对待选择中的礼貌原则的描述。 我没有完全理解这句论述的意思。这里的保持最初文本选择完整的理解似乎很别扭。 P67 Inother words ,in the interests of reaching functional equivalence ,thetranslator may well have employed a cultural filter in order to accommodate ina patterned way the target group’s different presuppositions aboutcommunicative norms and politeness.. 解读:译者采取文化过滤方式,用于适合目的语受众在交际规则与礼貌原则下所采取的不同预设。 P86 Acommunicative act has a function with respect to both the structure of theinteraction of which it forms a part and with respect to the attitudes,feelings and beliefs of the speaker making it . It is both an interactional andillocutionary act. 解读:此处讨论的是交际行为的互动功能与情感态度功能。 P73 It is now common place in studiesof intercultural communication to suggest that “pragmatic’ meaning is not onlynegotiable but also highly variable across both linguistic and culturaldivides. 解读:此处讨论的是语用意义在跨文化交际中发生的语言文化层面的变化。 P118 Presuppostions triggered by thekind of linguistic categories and structures listed here are unlikely to beaffected in translation…even in languages from very different families ,thelinguistic items which give rise to presuppositions seem to be preciselyparallel 评:预设由语言种类及结构激发但在翻译中不会丢失,即在不同语族中由语言项所导致的预设都保持了其同一性。 P125 ..we may summarize thetranslator’s bask as being the creation of a linguistic representation in thetarget language of the construction of meaning achieved in a particularinstance of use of the source language. 解读:这里讨论了译者任务之一是完成语言替换:将源语语言使用中所获得的意义在目的语结构予以替换性创建。 P126 The translator may indeed needto make adjustments of this type to particular items that actually appear inthe text ,or may need to add to the text information which serves tocontextualize it for the target reader. 解读:为了给目标语读者创建语境,需要增加文本信息含量。 指示语翻译研究 P132 The deictic perspective not onlyvaries from text to text and from genre to genre but can also shift and alterover the course of the encounter between reader and text. What we are suggesting ,then is that ,on a macro –pragmatic level ,contextualfeatures constrain the markers and deictic perspective in translation, but also,on a micro—pragmatic level , deictive perspective changes as the discourseprogresses. 解读:指示语在文本与语体之间转换,也在读者与文本之间转换;在宏观语用层面语境因素制约输出者,在微观语用层面,指示语视角也随着话语进行而发生变化。 P137 The pragmatist’s classic response to this dilemma (inevitableslippage)is to (a degree of miscommunication) seek to achieve ‘equivalentpragmatic effect’, i.e.to make the translation’ do the same things’ as theoriginal text. But of course ,the purpose of thetranslation is frequently different from the purpose of the original so thatthe context has changed and the characteristics of the participants and ofother relevant aspects of the situation have also changed. As Robinson (1991:134)suggests ,the success of translation defieslogical analysis ;language is too fluid ,too slippery ,for it to be effectivelysimplified or reduced. 解读:翻译目的在于取得和源语一致的对等语用效果,但由于翻译的目的和源语有所不同(源语是一次性提供信息,而翻译则是信息转换),翻译会产生如下变化:语境变化,交际参与者的变化,与环境(背景)相关的其他方面的变化。 此处提出了翻译中抵制逻辑分析的情况,因语言易变易产生信息丢失,而不可能有效地简化或减少。 P140 The practitioner of the art oftranslation is therefore operating with a series of factors which are bound upwith the nature of linguistic representation in the mind. 解读:翻译艺术的实践者是和这样的因素打交道:密切联系着头脑里语言代码的一系列因素。 国外翻译研究 丛书之四 《The Pragmatics and Translaion》 《语用学与翻译》 Edited by Leo Hickey 上海外语教育出版社 希基.—影印本 上海.2001 ISBN7—81080—122 –8/ h,052 赞赏 Pageview 19Like投诉 写留言
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