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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

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Why Do Americans Color But The British Colour? Thank Noah Webster   

2016-09-13 19:41:01|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Why Do Americans Color But The British Colour? Thank Noah Webster He did not save just the words, of course, but also their meanings and spellings. Hiscollection became the basis of today’s American English. Who was Noah Webster? Webster was born October 16, 1758, on a farm in West Hartford, Connecticut. Hisfamily came from the early Europeancolonists of Massachusetts and Connecticut. Webster was interested in language evenas a child. He learned to read before he started school. Most children at the time stopped theireducation after only a few years. But Webster continued his. He attendedcollege at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Noah Webster During the four years Webster studied at Yale, the American colonies separatedfrom Britain in the Revolutionary War. People at the time argued about the language of the newly independent states. Should it be English or German? After all, 10 percent of the population spokeGerman. Others said Hebrew should be the common language. Many schools taughtHebrew so students could read the originalJudeo-Christian Bible. Webster thought the language of the American states should be English. But not British English. American English. The only problem was that such a language didnot yet formally exist. People in differentAmerican states used different words, different spellings and differentpronunciations. The American Spelling Book By this time, Webster was a teacher. Mostschools taught Latin, and students wroteor made oral presentations in Latin. But Webster argued that it was morepractical for “merchants, mechanics, planters, etc.” to know their own languagewell. If they learned another language, he said, it should be a living language suchas French, Italian, Spanish or German. Webster believed improving children’s education could help build a strongernation. In an essay, Webster wrote that Americans should study other countries’ histories and governments. That way, Americans could avoid mistakes, advancethe sciences, and “add dignity” to the United States and human nature. Young Americans should also learn to usea standard and pure language, Webstersaid. So he decided to write a series of textbooks: a speller, a reader and a grammar. Webster published the firstbook, which came to be called the Blue-Backed Speller, in 1783. Webster worked hard to promote the book. He invented the modern book tour. He traveled around the country, bringingbooks to his public speeches. The speller immediately became a bestseller. Soon it was used in schools in every state. In 1787 Webster changed the book’s name to The American SpellingBook. An important part of the method Webstertaught for spelling was to divide a wordinto its sounds, or syllables. ThomasDilworth’s British spelling books said that people should pronounce “ti” before a vowel as a separate syllable. That rulemade them say nation as “na-ti-on” and motion as “mo-ti-on.” Webster thought the correct pronunciation was “na-tion” and “mo-tion.” Webster also thought some Britishspellings did not make sense. He preferred variations that some Americanswere already using. So in his works, he changed musick to music and plough to plow. Some of the changes he suggested didnot stay – such as changingtongue to tung and women to wimmen.But many others remained. American writer H. L. Mencken wrote in the early 20th century, “The influence of his Speller was really stupendous. It … maintained its authority for nearly a century.” In the 100 years after the Blue-BackedSpeller came out, the only book to sellmore copies in the U.S. was the Bible. Webster’s speller helped unify the writtenlanguage of the United States. The American Dictionary of the EnglishLanguage Webster used the money he was able to earn from his speller to begin anotherproject: a dictionary. He believed Americans needed a dictionary that reflected their owngeography, political system and history. His first version, published in 1806, included about 40,000 words. His second, called the AmericanDictionary of the English Language, included 70,000 words. To create it, Webster learned at least the basics of over20 languages. He also defined words that were new to American English. Many were borrowedfrom Native American languages, such as “skunk” and “squash.” He also gave the pronunciation of words as Americans saidthem. One of his definitions showed how proudWebster was of his country. He included a quote from its first leader, GeorgeWashington. After the word “American,” Webster wrote: “A native of America; originally applied to the aboriginals, or copper-colored races, found here by the Europeans; but nowapplied to the descendants of Europeansborn in America. ‘The name Americanmust always exalt the pride of patriotism.’ Washington.” Webster’s dictionary came to be a symbolof the country’s new national identity. The website ConnecticutHistory.org points out that Webster’s efforts also marked the lasttime one person created a major dictionaryalone. A few years after Noah Webster died, at the age of 86, two brothers gained the rights to the American Dictionary. Georgeand Charles Merriam owned a printing and bookselling business. They were able to make, update and sell the dictionary at a less expensive price than the Websterfamily had. The reference book became increasinglypopular in schools and homes across the U.S. Like Webster’s speller, Webster’s dictionary became the authority on American English – not just in the 19thcentury, but today. For example, if you are reading this article on a computer, pointthe mouse to any word in the story. Youwill see a definition from – you guessed it – Merriam-Webster. Words in This Story standard – adj. regularly and widely used, seen, or accepted; not unusual or special pure – adj. not mixed with anything else syllable – n. any one of the parts intowhich a word is naturally divided when it is pronounced variations – n. something that is similar to something else but different in some way stupendous – adj. so large or great that it amazes you version – n. a form of something (such as a product) that is different in some wayfrom other forms skunk – n. a small black-and-white NorthAmerican animal that produces a verystrong and unpleasant smell when it is frightened or in danger aboriginals – n. the original people to livein an area exalt – v. to raise (someone or something) to a higher level
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