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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

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Improve Your English by Testing Yourself    

2016-09-09 10:44:48|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Education Report - Improve Your English by Testing Yourself 2016-08-17 WorldLanguage dunnage play noun DUN-ij PrevNext Definition 1 : loose materials used to support and protect cargo in a ship's hold; also : padding in a shipping container 2 : baggage Examples The listed weight on the shipping order did not account for the container and dunnage. "There are … efforts to reduce impact on the environment, with employees reusing as much of the packing material as possible. Boxes can be reused or turned into dunnage to use in packing." — The Crossville (Tennessee) Chronicle, 26 Nov. 2012 Learn a new word every day. Delivered to your inbox! Did You Know? Etymologists don't know the exact origin of dunnage. Some have pointed out the similarity of the word todünne twige, a Low German term meaning "brushwood," but no one has ever proven the two are related. Others have speculated that it derives fromDunlop, the name of a famous cheese-making town in Scotland; however, neither the town nor the cheese has any connection to dunnage. Truth be told, thoughdunnage has been with us since the 15th century, its etymological history remains a mystery. Education Report - Improve Your English by Testing Yourself Improve Your English by Testing Yourself August 16, 2016 Education Tips #12 English learners can improve their ability to remember and use new words by testing themselves. This idea comes from Sarah Lynn, an educational consultant and teacher at Harvard University's Bridge Program. She adds that self-testing improves retrieval – the ability to use and remember new words. Beyond improving the learner's ability to retrieve information, self-testing improves the learner's confidence, too. Background If you are like many learners, you may have faced a situation such as this one: Person 1: Hey! Did you study the new English grammar lesson? Person 2: No, I don't need to. I already know that topic. [The day after the test] Person 1: Hey! How did you do on the English grammar test? Person 2: I don't want to talk about it. I thought I knew the lesson… This dialogue shows a common situation: Language learners think they understand a topic. Yet when asked to use what they learned, they are not able to remember the information. Not being able to retrieve new ideas could happen on a test or even in a conversation. The basic problem is this: Learners did not learn something as well as they thought they did. Learning takes effort. It takes effort because the learning process changes the brain, says Sarah Lynn. One way it changes the brain is by creating connections. These connections, which we discussed in previous education stories, are called dendrites. Lynn suggests that dendrite connections are important for retrieval. There are three main ideas about how to grow dendrites and improve retrieval, says Lynn. We covered the first two ideas – making connections and using repetition – in previous education stories. The third method to grow dendrite connections is to test yourself. Lynn is not the only expert who recommends self-testing. A paper in the Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition tells about the benefits of testing yourself.* The paper says one benefit of testing practice is that it improves retrieval. Retrieving information once makes retrieving that information easier in the future. In addition, the paper says, when students test themselves as part of studying, they learn what they do not know. When students know what they do not understand, they can pay attention to improving their weaknesses. Close the book Lynn recommends that learners test themselves by getting away from what they are studying. Then, they should test themselves by thinking about what they have learned. She recommends that learners make themselves write or speak something. Lynn suggests reading something or watching a video on the topic, then summarizing it. This will allow learners to test what they know: "But actually, if you close the book, or turn off the YouTube video, and then write down, or audio record yourself of what you remember, and then you go back, and you see what it is, that's when you really begin to construct your own understanding of the new knowledge. And you begin to organize it, and control it, and eventually master it." The benefits of such practice, Lynn says, are not just about improving your ability to remember information. By testing yourself, you can build confidence in the skills you have developed. When you test yourself, Lynn says, you will see how much progress you have made. This progress will satisfy and encourage you to do more in the future. What can you do? #1 Make flashcards The next time you are studying English, try to test yourself. A simple way to test vocabulary is to create flashcards with clues on one side and the answer on the back. Flashcards in the past were small cards or pieces of paper with a word or a question on one side and the meaning or answer to the question on the other side. Students used them to quiz each other or quiz themselves to review for examinations. Now, many online services allow students to create digital flashcards. One such service is Quizlet, where learners can do a variety of activities based on one set of new words or information. You can match words and meanings, write a word after looking at a picture, or listen to a word and write it. You can also play games with the new words and meanings. #2 Ask yourself questions Another way is to ask yourself questions at the end of the day, at the end of a study session, or at other times. Lynn recommends that learners ask questions such as, "What did I learn today? What were those words I thought were interesting? What was that verb tense I learned? How does it work?" The important point is this: Effective learning takes time, effort and practice. Do not just assume that you can read something once or twice and fully understandit. Even if you highlight important points or take notes in a class, you probably do not fully understand what you learned. After all, Olympic athletes cannot learn how to swim or run just from reading a book. They have to practice swimming or running every day for years. They often compete in races to test their skills. Like those athletes, successful language learners practice as much as they can, and test themselves to improve their skills. Self-testing is one way to improve your retrieval and inform your future course of study. Give it a try, and let us know how it works for you. I'm John Russell. ______________________________ Words in This Story consultant – n. a person who gives professional advice or services to companies for a fee retrieval – n. the act or process of getting and bringing back something dendrite – n. a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body benefit – n. a good or helpful result or effect flashcard – n. a card that has words, numbers, or pictures on it and that is used to help students learn about a subject US Announces Single Largest Transfer of Guantanamo Inmates 08/16, 2016 FILE - In this Nov. 21, 2013 file photo reviewed by the U.S. military, dawn arrives at the now closed Camp X-Ray, which was used as the first detention facility for al-Qaida and Taliban militants who were captured after the Sept. 11 attacks at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba. U.S. authorities have begun considering whether to release Kenyan Mohammed Abdul Malik Bajabu who has been held at the American base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, without charge since 2007. (AP Photo/Charles Dharapak, File) Fifteen people are no longer prisoners at the United States military’s prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Twelve detainees from Yemen and three Afghans were released to the government of the United Arab Emirates. The release was announced on August 15. It was the largest transfer of detainees from the prison during the nearly eight- year presidency of Barack Obama. The move comes during a renewed push to reduce the number of people jailed at Guantanamo. The U.S. Department of Defense said on Monday that 61 detainees are still held there. The prison has mostly been used to hold those captured by the government’s war on terrorism. President Obama is facing his own deadline to close the prison. Obama will leave office in January 2017. He promised to close Guantanamo when he was first elected in 2008. The president faces opposition about the future of the prison from many members of Congress. A top official with the rights group Amnesty International believes Guantanamo will remain open. "…[T]here is a significant possibility this is going to remain open as a permanentoffshore prison to hold people, practically until they die," said Naureen Shah, Amnesty’s U.S. director for security and human rights. One of the detainees who just left Guantanamo spent more than 13 years there. He was identified as an Afghan national named Obaidullah. He had been accused of hiding and storing mines to be used against U.S. forces in Afghanistan. _________________________ Words in This Story deadline – n. a date or time when something must be finished; time limit transfer – n. an act of moving someone or something from one place to another offshore – adv. at a distance from the coast; outside the country As It Is - Researchers Exploring Ways to Fight Roundworm Infection Researchers Exploring Ways to Fight Roundworm Infection 08/16, 2016 Roundworm larva mature in the liver before migrating to the lungs. Researchers in Ireland and England may have discovered a new way to fight roundworm parasites. The researchers say they identified a method that could possibly turn an animal at risk for the disease into one that can fight the infection. Their findings were published in PLOS, the Public Library of Science. More than 800 million people around the world are infected with the parasite. The highest infection rates are in parts of Asia, south-central Latin America and Africa, south of the Sahara. The World Health Organization says roundworm is one of many neglected diseases in warm climates. In other words, not much research is being done to stop these diseases. Roundworm is the most common of three diseases transmitted through soil. Most humans infected with roundworm do not show signs of the disease. People only realize they are infected after the parasite leaves the body in the person’s waste orvomit. Fertilized roundworm eggs are left in the soil from human waste. When the eggs enter the body, they hatch in the intestine. The roundworm larvae then move into the liver where they grow larger. They then travel through the bloodstream into the lungs. After a few days, the worms leave the lungs and enter the throat, where they are either swallowed or expelled from the body. If they return to the intestines, the female worms can produce up to 200,000 eggs a day. The eggs are deposited into the soil when a person defecates. This restarts thecycle of infection. Roundworms can be especially harmful to children. Adult worms can live in the body for up to two years, blocking the intestines. The larvae can also cause breathing problems when they enter the lungs. The WHO fights the parasite by “deworming” people who live in areas with high rates of infection. Patients are given strong medicines designed to kill the parasites. Graham Medley is a professor of Infectious Disease Modelling at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He noted that deworming is effective at stopping the disease from spreading, but it does not end the health threat. His comments were published in the British medical journal The Lancet. Medley told VOA that “roundworms are a major public health problem in low-income countries, and having a drug that prevents infection would be a major advance.” Researchers have found that some people are more likely to be infected with roundworm than others. But it is costly to study humans, so researchers use mice that have the same chance of being infected. When these animals are infected, a larger number of the parasites enter their lungs than enter those of mice that are resistant to the parasites. Earlier research suggested that the livers of these two genetically-different mice must be different. Jim Carolan works at Maynooth University in Ireland. He told VOA that humans should be able to stop the parasite from entering our bodies. “But it doesn’t,” he said, “because the [roundworms] have evolved ways to evade or suppress the system.” Carolan wanted to learn how the organisms did that. So he studied the liver proteins of the two genetically-different mice. He and his team found that the liver cells of resistant mice had more copies of a protein than the mice that were more likely to be infected. The proteins create a chemical which the researchers believe could be toxicto the parasitic cells. But they are not sure. Carolan notes that more research must be done before drugs can be developed and tested on humans. But he said the research is “pointing us in a direction that we need to focus on.” I’m Christopher Jones-Cruise. __________________________ Words in This Story parasite – n. an animal or plant that lives in or on another animal or plant and gets food or protection from it neglect – v. to fail to take care of or to give attention to (someone or something) transmit – v. to cause (a virus, disease, etc.) to be given to others vomit – n. the food, liquid, etc., that comes out of your body through your mouth when you vomit hatch – v. of an egg: to break open as a young bird, insect, fish, etc., is born larva – n. a very young form of an insect that looks like a worm defecate – v. to pass solid waste from the body cycle – n. a set of events or actions that happen again and again in the same order; a repeating series of events or actions advance – n. progress in the development or improvement of something evolve – v. to change or develop slowly often into a better, more complex, or more advanced state; to develop by a process of evolution evade – v. to avoid doing toxic – adj. containing poisonous substances focus – v. to cause (something, such as attention) to be directed at something specific (usually + on) Pageview 18Like投诉 写留言
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