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有时我喜欢安静,有时我喜欢热闹。 有时我喜欢加入人群,有时我喜欢远离他们,独自呆着。 冬天我渴望阳光,夏天我盼望下雪。 春去秋来,不变的是我的学术信仰、志向和兴趣。一直思考着:什么是语用?为什么要研究语用?怎样研究语用?研究语用需要具备哪些素质?谁在研究语用?语用研究的走势如何?存在哪些问题?等等。 我深信“宁静”方可“致远”的道理,努力走向这种境界。 求学、求真的路上,深深领悟到过程决定结果,过程大于结果,远远大于结果。

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翻硕百科知识之法律与司法机构   

2016-10-31 12:50:23|  分类: 教育哲学edu phil |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
睡前来一发 | 翻硕百科知识之法律与司法机构 2016-09-22 翻译菌新东方在线翻译硕士MTI 听说90%考翻硕的考生都已经关注了,点击上方“翻译硕士”并关注,一起涨知识~ 翻译硕士专业基础课考试考汉语写作与百科常识,翻译酱们不要忽略了哦,且多了解一些百科常识,对于翻译的思路,英汉互译的转换更有益处。今天分享法律与司法机构的百科,睡前看看,有助睡眠哦~~ 翻译硕士考研百科常识:法律与司法机构Justice and the law There is no single legal system in the United Kingdom. A feature common to all systems of law in the United Kingdom is that there is no complete code. The sources of law include (1) statutes; (2) a large amount of “unwritten” or common law; (3) equity law; (4) European Community. Another common feature is the distinction made between criminal law and civil law. 联合王国不实行完全统一的法律制度。联合王国所有法律制度的一个共同特点是没有以部完整的法典。法典来源包括:(1)成文法;(2)大量的“不成文法”或习惯法;(3)衡平法;(4)欧共体法。另一个共同的特点是刑法和民法之间的区别。 一 Ⅰ.Criminal Courts in England and Wales英格兰和威尔士的刑事法庭 Magistrates’ Courts which try summary offences and “either way” offences. A magistrates’ court, which is open to the public and the media, usually consists of three unpaid “lay” magistrates-known as justices of the peace-who are advised on point of law and procedure by a legally qualified assistant. A Magistrates’ court sits without a jury. 治安(警事)法庭,负责审理判决犯罪,也审理“任意方式”罪行。治安法庭对公众和媒体公开,通常由三位无薪的“外行”地方官——地方治安官组成,由懂得法律知识的书记员和助手给他们提供法律规定和程序方面的建议。治安法庭审察时没有陪审团。 1.Youth Court which try most cases involving people under 18. 青少年法庭,负责审理18岁以下青年的大多数案件。 The Crown Court tries the most serious offences and ‘either way” offences referred to it by magistrates. The Crown Court is presided over by High Court judges, full-time circuit Judges and part-time Recorders England and Wales are divided into six circuits for the purpose of hearing criminal case. Each circuit isdivided into areas containing one or more centers of High Court and Crown Court. 皇家刑事法庭。负责审理最严重的罪行和由地方法官提交的“任意方式”罪行。皇家刑事法庭由高级法院法官,全职巡回法官和兼任刑事法官主持。为审理刑事案,英格兰和威尔士被分为六个巡回区,每个巡回区又分区域,每个区域有一个或多个高级法庭和皇家刑事法庭。 2. Criminal courts in Scotland 苏格兰的刑事法庭 There are three criminal courts in Scotland.(1)the High Court of Justiciary;(2) the sheriff court;(3) the district court. Scotland has two types of criminal procedure, know as solemn procedure and summary procedure. In solemn procedure, a defendant is tried by a judge sits without a jury. 英格兰有三种刑事法院:(1)高级法院;(2)郡法院;(3)区法院。英格兰有两种刑事诉讼:庄重诉讼和即决诉讼。庄重诉讼里,被告由陪审团和法官审理。在即决诉讼中,法官独自审理,不用陪审团。 3. Criminal courts in Northern Ireland 北爱尔兰的刑事法庭 Cases involving minor summary offences are heard by magistrates’ courts presided over by a full-time legally qualified resident magistrate. County courts are primarily civil law courts. The Crown Court deals with criminal trails on indictment. 涉及轻微即决犯罪的案件由治安法庭听审,法庭由全职的法律合格的常驻治安法官主持。郡法庭主要是民事法庭。皇家刑事法庭根据起诉进行刑事审判。 二 Ⅱ.Civil Courts 民事法庭 Magistrates’ Courts have limited civil jurisdiction, The main courts of civil jurisdiction are County Courts, the High Court deals with the more complicated civil case. Its jurisdiction covers mainly civil and some criminal cases. It has three divisions: (1) the family Division; (2) the Chancery Division; (3) the Queen’s Bench Division. 治安法庭只有一定的民事审判权。主要行使民事司法权的是民事法院,高等法院处理更为复杂的民事案。主要包括民事案和一些刑事案,高等法院有三个分支:(1)家事庭;(2)大法官庭;(3)王室庭。 三 Ⅲ. The Judiciary 司法机构 There is no ministry of justice in the United Kingdom. Central responsibility lies with the Lord Chancellor the Home Secretary and the Attorney General. In England and Wales, lay magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Lord Chancellor who is advised by committees in each county. The Lord Chancellor recommends the High Court and circuit judges. The highest judicial appointments and made by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister. 英国没有司法机构。中央政府的司法工作主要由娃哈哈官内政大臣和检察总长负责。在英格兰和威尔士,娃哈哈官根据各部委员会的建议任命外行人员为治安官。娃哈哈官推荐高等法官和巡回法官。最高级别的司法官任命由女王根据首相的建议做出。 四 V. Police 警察 The police service for United Kingdom is organized and controlled on a local basis under the Home Secretary and the Scottish and Northern Ireland Secretaries. London’s Metropolitan Police Force is directly under the control of Home Secretary. Police officers are not allowed to join a trade union or go on strike. They do not normally carry firearms. 在内政大臣和苏格兰及北爱尔兰国务大臣的指导下,英国警察分地组建,并以地方管理为基础。但伦敦警察署直接与内政大臣管辖。警察不得加入工会或罢工。他们通常不佩带手枪。 五 VI. Treatment of offenders 对违法者的处理 The chief aims of the penal system are to deter the potential lawbreaker and to reform the convicted offender. 刑罚制度的主要目的是阻止潜在的违法者,并改造已判的违法者。 Capital punishment ( a sentence of death ) for murder has been abolished in the U.K, through proposal for its reinstatement are regularly debated by Parliament, and it remains the penalty for treason and piracy. 英国已废除对谋杀罪的死刑,但议会仍经常辩论要恢复死刑,判国罪和海盗罪仍可判死刑。 购买了新东方在线正版翻硕课程的翻译酱们,可以后台回复“17翻硕一起走”添加翻译菌微信号,邀你入群哦~~ 听说咱武哥、李卓然、关也、薛冰也在 (p.s关注公众号,回复“17翻硕一起走”进群哟~) 红星照我去学习 好好学习,天天向上 mtixdfzx 新东方在线翻译MTI 负责任的MTI辅导平台 Pageview 3574Report 写留言
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